same amount of methanol (source of formaldehyde, formic acid) from aspartame as from dark wines and liquors: Utz: Murray 2004.10.19 rmforall

Rich Murray rmforall at att.net
Tue Oct 19 12:45:48 EST 2004


http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1126
same amount of methanol (source of formaldehyde, formic acid) from aspartame
as from dark wines and liquors: Utz: Murray 2004.10.19 rmforall

From: "Jeffrey P Utz" <jeffutz at juno.com>
To: <Quackbusters at yahoogroups.com>
Subject: Re: [Quackbusters] Aspartame -- Sweet Or Sour? Thea Jourdan, The
London Daily Mail  2004.10.04: Murray 2004.10.18 rmforall
Date: Tuesday, October 19, 2004 6:21 AM

Funny, you anti aspartame folks claim the ethanol in fruit is an antidote
for the methanol in fruit. Funny, how in liquor, it doesn't do this.

Could you please provide references for the 11% methanol in dark wines
and liquors, as well as how these cause headaches?

Jeff

On Mon, 18 Oct 2004 21:30:00 -0600 "Rich Murray" <rmforall at comcast.net>
writes:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1125
Aspartame -- Sweet Or Sour? Thea Jourdan, The London Daily Mail 2004.10.04:
Murray 2004.10.18 rmforall

[ Comments by Rich Murray are in square brackets.  I have added spacing for
increased readability and added emphasis, without changing text.

This UK newspaper article is unusual for its clarity and specifics about the
open secret that the 11% methanol component of aspartame, the same level
provided by diet sodas and by dark wines and liquors ( agreed by experts to
be the major cause of "morning after" hangovers )  is converted by the body
largely into formaldehyde and then largely into formic acid, both potent,
cumulative toxins that affect every cell and tissue.

Hundreds of case reports suggest that most aspartame reactors have been
using over 2 liters, about 6 12-oz cans diet soda, daily for years, while
three controlled experiments in 1988, 1993, and 1994 by non-industry funded
teams found that a quarter to a half of vulnerable people using 6 to 12 cans
daily for 1 to 4 weeks had symptoms, especially headaches. ( summarized at
the end of this post )

I conjecture that the author was required to recommend aspartame at the end,
but, all the same, she certainly "got her licks in". ]

http://www.rssl.com/OurServices/FoodENews/Newsletter.aspx?ENewsletterID=65
enquiries at rssl.com

Food e-News   Edition 205: 06 - 13 October 2004

 **Aspartame -- sweet or sour?
Thea Jourdan, writing for the Daily Mail (12/10/04), examines the pros and
cons of aspartame.
On the positive side she lists beating obesity, helping diabetics and
improving dental health in children.
On the negative side, she points out that many reputable scientists are
concerned by the fact that aspartame can break down into methanol, formic
acid and formaldehyde, all of which can have toxic effects.
She also claims that numerous studies have associated aspartame with
headache and migraine, and that nine [ actually 3 ] cases of seizures were
reported in the medical journal The Lancet.
See also Food e-News Edition 204 06/10/04).
**************************************************************

2004.10.19   Hi Jeff,  Thanks for the sensible questions.

The long-standing coverup about methanol in dark wines and liquors has
continued for three decades as a very similar "conspiracy of silence" about
methanol  from aspartame products.

It is urgent to warn the world public, and to mandate removal of all
methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid sources.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol --  1,120 mg aspartame  in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans,  gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
amount that produces hangover from red wine.

Methanol has a much longer half-life than ethanol-- about 5 to 10 times.
Often used at night, the ethanol in wine blocks the conversion of methanol
into formaldehyde.  Inebriation results.  By the next morning, the ethanol
is gone, but some of the one part in ten thousand impurity of methanol,
about 128 mg per liter red wine, remains, and is promptly largely made into
formaldehyde and then largely into formic acid, resulting in the many famous
"morning after" hangover symptoms, since formaldehyde and formic acid are
potent, cumulative toxins that affect all cells and tissues.

About the same amount of methanol given by diet sodas, is in dark wines and
liquors, about one part in ten thousand, stated by experts to be the major
cause of the infamous "morning after" hangover: "thirst, headache, fatigue,
nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that hangover sufferers
report...."   Also, dizziness is common, along with vision and eye problems,
irritability,  impaired memory, "brain fog", aching joints and body pains,
flushed skin-- as most us us know from experience, observation, and a
plethora of novels and films.

Pharmacol Toxicol. 1987 Mar; 60(3): 217-20.
Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
Jones AW.
Department of Forensic Toxicology, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping,
Sweden. wayne.jones at RMV.se

This paper reports the elimination half-life of methanol in human
volunteers.
Experiments were made during the morning after the subjects had
consumed 1000-1500 ml red wine (9.5% w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol)
the previous evening.  [  100 to 150 mg methanol ]
The washout of methanol from the body coincided with the onset of hangover.
The concentrations of ethanol and methanol in blood were determined
indirectly by analysis of end-expired alveolar air.
In the morning when blood-ethanol dropped below the Km of liver alcohol
dehydrogenase (ADH) of about 100 mg/l (2.2 mM), the disappearance half-life
of ethanol was 21, 22, 18 and 15 min. in 4 test subjects respectively.
The corresponding elimination half-lives of methanol were 213, 110, 133 and
142 min. in these same individuals.
The experimental design outlined in this paper can be used to obtain useful
data on elimination kinetics of methanol in human volunteers without undue
ethical limitations.
Circumstantial evidence is presented to link methanol or its toxic metabolic
products, formaldehyde and formic acid, with the pathogenesis of hangover.
PMID: 3588516

"The experimental design outlined in this paper can be used to obtain useful
data on elimination kinetics of methanol in human volunteers without undue
ethical limitations."  -- means that precisely because methanol
(formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity is so serious, that it is not ethical
to expose humans to it, except under the guise of it being ordinary, long
socially santioned, dark wines and liquors.

"Many pathophysiological disturbances occur during hangover, including
dehydration;  metabolic acidosis;  hypoglycaemia;  disturbed prostaglandin
synthesis;  abnormal secretion of vasopressin,  cortisol,  aldosterone,
renin,  and testosterone;  increased cardiac output;  tachycardia;  and
vasodilatation."

http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/search.dtl  search to get free full text
British Medical Journal 1997 (4 January); 314(7073): 2.
Ian Calder, F.R.C.A. [ Tel/Fax: 0171 720 9279   Consultant Anaesthetist at
the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
London  WCIN 3BG, UK ]

Editorials         Hangovers: Not the ethanol - perhaps the methanol

"Chapman found that hangover symptoms were almost twice as common in
volunteers who drank 1.5 ml/kg [ body weight ] of bourbon whiskey - which
has methanol concentrations of 26 mg/l - as in those drinking the same dose
of vodka ( 3.9 mg of methanol per litre ). (5)   [ For a 60 kg person, this
would be 90 mg bourbon, 0.09 l, giving 2.34 mg methanol, which led to twice
as many symptoms as the 0.35 mg methanol  from vodka.  The bourbon gave as
about as much methanol as an ounce of diet soda. ]

Pawan compared the hangover produced by different types of drink (but only
one brand of each) in his study of 20 volunteers. The severity of hangover
symptoms declined in the order of brandy, red wine, rum, whisky, white wine,
gin, vodka, and pure ethanol.(6)  Vodka and pure ethanol caused only mild
headaches in two volunteers.

Jones has suggested that it is the metabolism of methanol to formaldehyde
and formic acid that causes symptoms of hangover, with quicker methanol
metabolisers suffering more.(7)  The justification for this suggestion is
threefold:
the types of drink associated with more severe hangovers contain higher
levels of methanol;
the time course of methanol metabolism corresponds to the onset of symptoms;
and a small dose of ethanol, which blocks the formation of formaldehyde and
formic acid, provides an effective treatment for hangovers ("the hair of the
dog")."

Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
100 to 150 mg methanol
(9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol =  0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

The expert review by Monte WC (1984) states:  "An alcoholic consuming 1500
calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg
of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1)...."
Table 1 lists red wine as having 128 mg/l methanol, about one part in ten
thousand.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol --  1,120 mg aspartame  in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans,  gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
amount that produces hangover from red wine.

"Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)"   This
indicates a remarkable range of individual vulnerability to formaldehyde and
formic acid exposure.

Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
in mobile homes.  Many personal care products contain formaldehyde; for
instance, leather shoes can cause foot dermatitis.

Similar  levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human body,
formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from degradation of fruit and
vegetable pectins in the colon.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1106
hangover research relevant to toxicity of 11% methanol in aspartame
(formaldehyde, formic acid): Calder I (full text): Jones AW: also some
methanol from fruit pectin in colon: Murray 2004.09.11 rmforall

Rich Murray, MA    Room For All    rmforall at comcast.net
1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA  505-501-2298

[ NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia, E951 ]

Since no adaquate data has ever been published on the exact disposition  of
the toxic metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid, in specific tissues in
humans of the readily released 11% methanol component of aspartame, the many
studies on morning-after hangover from the methanol impurity in alcohol
drinks are the main available resource to date.

Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
100 to 150 mg methanol
(9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol =  0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

The expert review by Monte WC (1984) states:  "An alcoholic consuming 1500
calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg
of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1)...."
Table 1 lists red wine as having 128 mg/l methanol, about one part in ten
thousand.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol --  1,120 mg aspartame  in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans,  gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
amount that produces hangover from red wine.

Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
in mobile homes.

Similar potent levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human
body, formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from degradation of
fruit pectins in the colon:

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997 Aug; 21(5): 939-43.
Endogenous production of methanol after the consumption of fruit.
Lindinger W, Taucher J, Jordan A, Hansel A, Vogel W.
Institut fur Ionenphysik, Leopold Franzens Universitat Innsbruck, Austria.

After the consumption of fruit, the concentration of methanol in the human
body increases by as much as an order of magnitude.
This is due to the degradation of natural pectin (which is esterified with
methyl alcohol) in the human colon.
In vivo tests performed by means of proton-transfer-reaction mass
spectrometry show that consumed pectin in either a pure form (10 to 15 g)
or a natural form (in 1 kg of apples) induces a significant increase of
methanol in the breath (and by inference in the blood) of humans.
The amount generated from pectin (0.4 to 1.4 mg)
is approximately equivalent to the total daily endogenous production
(measured to be 0.3 to 0.6 mg/day)
or that obtained from 0.3 liters of 80-proof brandy
(calculated to be 0.5 mg).
[ typos corrected, g actually is mg for ethanol, methanol ]
This dietary pectin may contribute to the development
of nonalcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. PMID: 9267548

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995 Oct; 19(5): 1147-50.
Methanol in human breath.
Taucher J, Lagg A, Hansel A, Vogel W, Lindinger W.
Institut fur Ionenphysik, Universitat Innsbruck, Austria.

Using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry for trace gas analysis of
the human breath, the concentrations of methanol and ethanol have been
measured for various test persons consuming alcoholic beverages and various
amounts of fruits, respectively.
The methanol concentrations increased from a natural (physiological) level
of approximately 0.4 ppm up to approximately 2 ppm a few hours after eating
about 1/2 kg of fruits,
and about the same concentration was reached after drinking of 100 ml brandy
containing 24% volume of ethanol and 0.19% volume of methanol.
[ 24 ml = 64 mg ethanol and 0.19 ml = 0.33 mg methanol ] PMID: 8561283

These three potent dietary sources of methanol, formaldehyde, and formic
acid, which impact many people, and cause the same symptoms in vulnerable
and sensitized people, are ignored in the following prestigious, official
source:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1108
faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok, Poland,
abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde,
lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging, Lyme disease:
Murray 2004.08.08 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1109
Toxicological Profile for Formaldehyde 1/4 plain text, start to 111 of 468
pages USA DHHS PHS ATSDR 1999 July: Murray 2004.08.30 rmforall

An editorial review by Ian Calder, F.R.C.A., "Hangovers: not the ethanol-- 
perhaps the methanol",  British Medical Journal 1997 Jan 4; 314(7073): 2
[ Tel/Fax: 0171 720 9279   Consultant Anaesthetist at the National Hospital
for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London  WCIN 3BG, UK ]
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/search.dtl  search to get free full text  ]  ,
states:

"In fact, ethanol itself may play only a minor part in producing the thirst,
headache, fatigue, nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that
hangover sufferers report....  [ Also, dizziness is common. ]

"Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)"

The symptom list is similar to reports by aspartame reactors.

If only a fraction of aspartame users happen to be vulnerable to the
methanol, that would account well for the disbelief by those who are not
aspartame reactors, as well as the scientific difficulty in proving
aspartame toxicity in the general population.

Research can study whether the hangover prone are also vulnerable to
aspartame, methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid, and determine the
specific biochemistry for different groups.

Hangover treatments may help aspartame reactors.  For instance, adaquate
folic acid (folate) helps humans eliminate toxic products from methanol.

Reprod Toxicol. 1996 Nov-Dec; 10(6): 455-63.
Influence of dietary folic acid on the developmental toxicity of methanol
and the frequency of chromosomal breakage in the CD-1 mouse.
Fu SS, Sakanashi TM, Rogers JM, Hong KH, Keen CL.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.

"These results show that marginal folate deficiency in pregnant dams
significantly increases the teratogenicity of MeOH."   PMID: 8946559

There are no reports of hangover from heavy use of orange juice, 34 mg/l
methanol, since the methanol in many fruits and vegetables is locked up in
complex pectin molecules, not released by human digestion. (Monte WC  1984)

I've never found any reports by aspartame reactors, who are often sensitive
even to a single breath mint or stick of chewing gum
(0.4 to 0.8 mg methanol),
of having the same symptoms from fruits or vegetables.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1047
Avoiding Hangover Hell 2003.12.31 Mark Sherman, AP writer:
Robert Swift, MD [ formaldehyde from methanol in aspartame ]:
Murray 2004.01.16 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1048
hangovers from formaldehyde from methanol (aspartame?):
Schwarcz: Linsley: Murray 2004.01.18

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1099
Diagnose-Me.com:  formaldehyde from 11 % methanol part of aspartame:
recent abstracts for methanol and hangovers: Murray 2004.07.10 rmforall

http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/search.dtl  search to get free full text
British Medical Journal 1997 (4 January); 314(7073): 2.
Ian Calder, F.R.C.A. [ Tel/Fax: 0171 720 9279   Consultant Anaesthetist at
the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
London  WCIN 3BG, UK ]

Editorials         Hangovers: Not the ethanol - perhaps the methanol

"Wine is only sweet to happy men," wrote an unhappy John Keats to his
sweetheart.(1)  His observation seems to have been vindicated.

Harburg et al found that psychosocial factors such as guilt about drinking,
a neurotic personality, becoming angry or depressed while drinking, and
having suffered "negative life events" in the past 12 months are better
predictors of symptoms of hangover than the amount of ethanol drunk.(2)

In fact, ethanol itself may play only a minor part in producing the thirst,
headache, fatigue, nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that
hangover sufferers report.
Hangover symptoms are worst at a time when almost all ethanol and its
metabolite acetaldehyde have been cleared from the blood, and peak blood
ethanol or acetaldehyde levels are not related to the severity of
hangover.(3 )

Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
symptoms despite having been intoxicated.(2, 3, 4)

Congeners - complex organic molecules such as polyphenols, higher alcohols
including methanol, and histamine, which occur in varying amounts in
ethanolic drinks - are probably more to blame than ethanol.

Chapman found that hangover symptoms were almost twice as common in
volunteers who drank 1.5 ml/kg [ body weight ] of bourbon whiskey - which
has methanol concentrations of 26 mg/l - as in those drinking the same dose
of vodka ( 3.9 mg of methanol per litre ). (5)   [ For a 60 kg person, this
would be 90 mg bourbon, 0.09 l, giving 2.34 mg methanol, which led to twice
as many symptoms as the 0.35 mg methanol  from vodka.  The bourbon gave as
about as much methanol as an ounce of diet soda. ]

Pawan compared the hangover produced by different types of drink (but only
one brand of each) in his study of 20 volunteers. The severity of hangover
symptoms declined in the order of brandy, red wine, rum, whisky, white wine,
gin, vodka, and pure ethanol.(6)  Vodka and pure ethanol caused only mild
headaches in two volunteers.

Jones has suggested that it is the metabolism of methanol to formaldehyde
and formic acid that causes symptoms of hangover, with quicker methanol
metabolisers suffering more.(7)  The justification for this suggestion is
threefold:
the types of drink associated with more severe hangovers contain higher
levels of methanol;
the time course of methanol metabolism corresponds to the onset of symptoms;
and a small dose of ethanol, which blocks the formation of formaldehyde and
formic acid, provides an effective treatment for hangovers ("the hair of the
dog").

The economic and social consequences of hangovers are probably considerable
but difficult to quantify. Performance accuracy is impaired synergistically
by sleep deprivation and hangover.(8)
Drivers perform less well in simulators when tested the morning after
drinking ethanol.(9)
Making driving with a hangover a criminal offence might be logical, but is
probably impractical in the absence of a simple diagnostic test like breath
alcohol.

Many pathophysiological disturbances occur during hangover, including
dehydration;  metabolic acidosis;  hypoglycaemia;  disturbed prostaglandin
synthesis;  abnormal secretion of vasopressin,  cortisol,  aldosterone,
renin,  and testosterone;  increased cardiac output;  tachycardia;  and
vasodilatation.

Hypoglycaemia and acidosis can be treated with fructose or glucose,(9)  and
the cardiovascular abnormalities with ß blockade,(10)  but symptoms are not
alleviated.
However, rehydration and anti-inflammatory analgesics are helpful,
particularly if treatment is started before bedtime.(11)

A completely effective treatment is probably unattainable (since so many
factors - such as lack of sleep,  active or passive smoking,  dietary
indiscretions, unaccustomed physical activity,  intermittent upper airway
obstruction,  and emotional disturbances - must play a part) and is arguably
undesirable since the fear of hangover prompts most people to moderate their
ethanol intake.(4 )

Even moderate amounts of ethanol can be damaging,(12) so a penalty for
consumption is in our interests.  Perhaps those who aspire to be one of Dr
Johnson's "heroes" by drinking brandy (13) are sensible as well as brave.

Ian Calder, Consultant anaesthetist, Department of Neuroanaesthesia,
National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG UK

1. Keats J. Letter to Fanny Brawne. In: Tripp RT, ed. The international
thesaurus of quotations. England: Penguin, 1976: 266.

2. Harburg E, Gunn R, Gleiberman L, DiFranceisco W, Schork A.
Psychosocial factors, alcohol use and hangover signs among social drinkers:
a reappraisal.
J Clin Epidemiol 1993; 46: 413-22. [Medline]

3. Ylikahri RH, Huttunen M, Eriksson CJ, Nikkila EA.
Metabolic studies on the pathogenesis of hangover.
Eur J Clin Invest 1974; 4: 93-100.

4. Smith CM, Barnes GM.
Signs and symptoms of hangover; prevalence and relationship to alcohol use
in a generally adult population.
Drug Alcohol Depend 1983; 11: 249-69. [Medline]

5. Chapman LF.
Experimental induction of hangover.
Q J Stud Alcohol 1970; 5: 67-85. [Medline]

6. Pawan GLS.
Alcoholic drinks and hangover effects.
Proc Nutr Soc 1973; 32: 15A.

7. Jones AW.
Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
Pharmacol Toxicol 1987; 60; 217-20.

8. Peeke SC, Callaway E, Jones RT, Stone GC, Doyle J.
Combined effect of alcohol and sleep deprivation in normal young adults.
Psychopharmacol 1980; 67: 279-87. [Medline]

9. Seppala T, Leino T, Linnoila M, Huttunen MO, Ylikahri RH.
Effects of hangover on psychomotor skills related to driving: modification
by fructose and glucose.
Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1976; 38: 209-18.

10. Bogin RM, Nostrant TT, Young MJ.
Propranolol for the treatment of the alcoholic hangover.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1986; 12: 279-84.

11. Khan MA, Jensen K, Krogh HJ.
Alcohol induced hangover. A double blind comparison of pyritinol and placebo
in preventing hangover symptoms.
Q J Stud Alcohol 1973; 34: 1195-201. [Medline]

12. Karhunen PJ, Erkinjuntti T, Laippala P.
Moderate alcohol consumption and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells.
BMJ 1994; 308: 1663-7.

13. Boswell J.
Life of Johnson. April 7th 1779. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1970.

This article has been cited by other articles:

M. H. Pittler, A. R. White, C. Stevinson, and E. Ernst.
Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers:
a randomized controlled trial
Can. Med. Assoc. J., December 9, 2003; 169(12): 1269 - 1273.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

W. T Thompson, M. E Cupples, C. H Sibbett, D. I Skan, and T. Bradley.
Challenge of culture, conscience, and contract to general practitioners'
care of their own health: qualitative study
BMJ, September 29, 2001; 323(7315): 728 - 731.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

© 2004 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
**************************************************************

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/846
aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks: Murray 2002.07.16 rmforall

Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
Newman LC, Lipton RB  Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
[ Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg. ]
Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
Department of Neurology   newmanache at aol.com
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
Innovative Medical Research   RLipton at aecom.yu.edu

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/855
Blumenthall & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997:
Murray 2002.07.28 rmforall

Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
Chewing Gum Headaches. Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
Tulsa, USA.   neurotulsa at aol.com
Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
gum sweetened with aspartame. [ 6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/622
Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall   four double-blind studies

Headache 1988 Feb; 28(1): 10-4
The effect of aspartame on migraine headache.
Koehler SM, Glaros A     PMID: 3277925, UI: 88138777
Shirley M. Koehler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology
Brooks Rehabilitation Hospital
3599 University Boulevard, South Jacksonville, Florida 32216
(904) 858-7650  shirley.koehler at brookshealth.org
Alan Glaros  glarosa at umkc.edu  816-235-2074

They conducted a double-blind study of patients, ages 18-55, who had
a medical diagnosis of classical migraines (normally having 1-3
migraines in 4-weeks), who were not on medications (other than
analgesics), and who suspected that aspartame had a negative effect on
their migraine headaches. The subjects were given 1200 mg daily,
aspartame or placebo, for four weeks, about 17 mg/kg.  The placebo
group had no increase in headaches.  Approximately half of the subjects
(5 of 11) who took aspartame had a large, statistically significant
(p = 0.02), increase in migraine headache frequency, but not in
intensity or duration, compared to baseline or placebo.  Only 11 of
25 subjects completed the program: 8 dropped out, 4 began new
medications, 2 had incomplete records.  They were at home.
Since 1/3 of the subjects dropped out, they may have been choosing
to avoid headaches-- were they unpaid?  To achieve statistical
signifance with only 11 subjects hints that the incidence rate from
aspartame is very high, about 1/2,  for migraine cases who believe
that they are hurt by aspartame.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1077
eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton,
MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall

Walton, RG, "Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge in
patients from a vulnerable population," 1993,  with Robert Hudak and
Ruth J. Green-Waite,  Biological Psychiatry, 34 (1), 13-17.
Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
OH 44501    330-740-3621    rwalton193 at aol.com
http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

Eight depressed patients, ages 24-60, and five non-depressed controls,
ages 24-56, employed at the hospital, were given for 7 days either
aspartame or a placebo, and then after a 3 day break, given the
opposite.  Each got 2100 mg  aspartame daily, 30 mg/kg bodyweight,
equal to 10-12 cans of diet soda daily, about a gallon.  Despite the
very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
statistically significant.  The eight depressed patients reported with
aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness,
trouble remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise. (For each
symptom, p<0.01)  The five normals did not report strong enough
differences between aspartame and placebo to be significant.
Initially, the study was to be on a group of 40, but was halted by the
Institutional Review Board because of severe reactions among 3 of the
depressed patients.

Again, statistical significance with only 8 depressed patients:
"In this study, patients most often began to report significant
symptoms after day 2 or 3."  The incidence rate is very high,
indeed, about 1/3.  The most common symptoms are entirely typical
of thousands of case histories.

Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, T.D. Koepsell, W.T. Longstreth, Jr,
G. van Belle, J.R. Daling, B. McKnight, "Aspartame ingestion and
headaches: a randomized crossover trial," 1994, Neurology, 44, 1787-93
Steven K. Van Den Eeden,PhD  550-450-2202  skv at dor.kaiser.org
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program
3505 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611-5714
http://www.dor.kaiser.org/dorhtml/investigators/Stephen_Van_Den_Eeden.html

In their introduction, they comment:

"In addition, the FDA had received over 5,000 complaints as of July,
1991 in a passive surveillance system to monitor adverse side effects.
(17)  Neurologic problems constitute the primary complaints in these
and several other case series, with headaches accounting for
18 to 45 %,depending on the case series reported. (17-19)"

Subjects, ages 18-57, were recruited who believed they got headaches
from aspartame, but were otherwise mentally and physically healthy.
They were paid $ 15 total, and were at home. Of the 44 subjects, 32
contributed data to the 38-day trials: a week of inert placebo, a week
of either aspartame or placebo, followed by a week of the opposite, and
then this two-week cycle repeated.  The daily dose was about 30 mg/kg.
"The proportion of days subjects reported having a headache was
higher during aspartame treatment compared with placebo treatment
(aspartame = 0.33, placebo = 0.24; p = 0.04) (table 5)".
Of the 12 subjects not included in the data, 7 reported adverse
symptoms before withdrawing.

Again, statistical significance with a moderate number of healthy
subjects, willing to be recruited by a newspaper ad, who believed
aspartame hurt them.  The number of headaches for each subject
for each treatment week are given: it appears that 4 subjects
had the strongest increase in headaches from the run-in week
or placebo week to their first week on aspartame, jumping from 0 to 5,
1 to 6, 1 to 4, 0 to 5 headaches per week.  So, about 4 of the 44
healthy people recruited for the study, who believed aspartame hurt
them, had a stong increase in headaches from the first week of daily
asparame exposure, while 7 reported adverse symptoms before leaving,
a total of 11 out of 44, an incidence ratio of 1/4.

This is sky high, if we consider that, if the incidence ratio for the
about two hundred million users in the USA is 1 of 100, that is 2
million cases.  It is plausible that the incidence ratio lies between 1
and 10 out of 100 for continuous daily exposure.  These three flames
should have set off alarm bells, with extensive follow-up studies and
much more careful study of thousands of case histories.  But these
little flares were adroitly smothered by thick blankets of industry
funded fluff:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/623
Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall    two double-blind studies

http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html  5-page review
Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
Townsend Letter  2000 Jan;  HJRobertsMD at aol.com
http://www.sunsentpress.com/    sunsentpress at aol.com
Sunshine Sentinel Press  P.O.Box 17799  West Palm Beach, FL 33416
800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/870
Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Interest 1984: Monte:
Murray 2002.09.23 rmforall

Dr. Woodrow C. Monte  Aspartame: methanol, and the public health.
Journal of Applied Nutrition 1984;  36 (1):  42-54.
(62 references)   Professsor of Food Science [retired 1992]
Arizona State University,  Tempe, Arizona 85287  woodymonte at xtra.co.nz
The methanol from 2 L of diet soda, 5.6 12-oz cans, 20 mg/can, is
112 mg, 10% of the aspartame.
The EPA limit for water is 7.8 mg daily for methanol (wood alcohol), a
deadly cumulative poison.
Many users drink 1-2 L daily.
The reported symptoms are entirely consistent with chronic methanol
toxicity. (Fresh orange juice has 34 mg/L, but, like all juices, has 16
times more ethanol, which strongly protects against methanol.)
***************************************************************

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1018
aspartame toxicity coverup increases danger of corporate meltdown:
Michael C. Carakostas of Coca-Cola: Murray 2003.08.11 rmforall
http://www.isrtp.org/new_members/members1.htm
The International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Carakostas, Michael C., DVM, PhD Director/Scientific & Regulatory
Affairs   The Coca-Cola Company PO Drawer 1734 Atlanta, GA 30301
T. 404/676-4234   F. 404/676-7166   E-mail: mcarakostas at na.ko.com
http://www2.coca-cola.com/ourcompany/columns_aspartame.html  [photo]
Aspartame: The world agrees it's safe   By Michael Carakostas, DVM, PhD
Director, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Coca-Cola

It is commendable that Carakostas mentions the core problem, albeit
disparagingly, and overlaid with multiple untruths:   "During digestion,
aspartame yields a very small amount of methanol-- as do many other food
substances. The body converts this methanol to formaldehyde, which is
instantly converted to formate.  Formate is quickly eliminated as carbon
dioxide and water."

Carakostas deceptively make claims, unsupported by research, that the amount
of methanol from aspartame is "very small", that many foods release as much,
and that little of the inevitable formaldehyde or formic acid toxic products
accumulate in body tissues.  This executive, with a PhD in veterinary
science, is deceiving people about very serious multiple toxicities.

Thus, there is evidence here cited from 1976 to 2004 that research and
reviews by immense vested interests about aspartame must be scrutinized with
the greatest skepticism.  The greatest Internet myth about aspartame is
this:  "Aspartame is the most thoroughly tested food additive in history."
***************************************************************

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1124
8 more Rapid Responses to Aspartame and its effects on health, BMJ:
Murray 2004.10.18 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1120
5 critical Rapid Responses to Aspartame and its effects on health, Michael E
J Lean and Catherine R Hankey, BMJ 2004; 329: 755-756: Murray 2004.10.05
rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1117
Aspartame and its effects on health, Michael E.J. Lean, Catherine R. Hankey,
Glasgow UK, British Medical Journal: 11% methanol component of aspartame,
and same level of methanol in dark wines and liquors, turns to formaldehyde
and formic acid, the main cause of chronic hangover symptoms: Murray
2004.10.04 rmforall

http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/329/7469/755#76712

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1123
genotoxins, Comet assay in mice: Ace-K, stevia fine; aspartame poor;
sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin bad: Sasaki YF, Aug, Dec 2002:
Rencuzogullari E et al, Aug 2004: Murray 2003.01.27, 2004.10.17 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1122
UN FAO & WHO approve Steviol glycosides as sweetener June 2004,
imports to UK no longer blocked: Martini: Murray 2004.10.17 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1126
same amount of methanol (source of formaldehyde, formic acid) from aspartame
as from dark wines and liquors: Utz: Murray 2004.10.19 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1114
review of sweeteners 2004, Weihrauch MR, Diehl V: formaldehyde from 11%
methanol component of aspartame, methanol in dark wines and liquors,
fermentation of fruits in colon, also smoke, new buildings, furniture,
drapes, carpets, personal products: available database from Harvard Nurses'
Health Study II of  91,249 women in 1991-1999: Murray 2004.09.18 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1108
faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok, Poland,
abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde,
lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging, Lyme disease:
Murray 2004.08.08 rmforall      skrzydle at amb.ac.bialystok.pl

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1109
Toxicological Profile for Formaldehyde 1/4 plain text, start to 111 of 468
pages USA DHHS PHS ATSDR 1999 July: Murray 2004.08.30 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
Murray 2003.01.12 rmforall  EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

Rich Murray, MA    Room For All    rmforall at comcast.net
1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA  505-501-2298
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
138 members,  1,126 posts in a public searchable archive   also Co-Moderator

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartame/messages  bryanth at brooksdata.net
Aspartame Victims Support Group    Edward Bryant Holman, Chief Moderator
853 members, 17,533 posts in a public, searchable archive
http://www.presidiotex.com/aspartame/

http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame    mgold at holisticmed.com
Aspartame Toxicity Information Center    Mark D. Gold     also Co-Moderator
12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301     603-225-2110
http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html
"Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"
***************************************************************





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