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Sun Apr 10 21:18:31 EST 2005

I.When an informational object is metabolically inactive,it does not exist =
for us.
2.When an informational object reaches a critical metabolic intensity then =
it becomes  conscious.
3.When an informational object becomes metabolically very active, to the po=
int of the illusion level,then it starts to RADIATE in many homologous patt=
ern domains(MHVs).
Consciousness becomes,thus,spread all through these MHVs and we are thus co=
nscious of a lot of things simultaneously.
But this gain in consciousness is made at a cost:the cost of time.
In such a state we can be conscious,simultaneously,about a lot of informati=
onal objects but for a very short time.This reminds Heisenberg's dillema!
In our normal waking state of consciousness we can be conscious of a few th=
ings only but for an extended period of time.In a radiating state of consci=
ousness we can be conscious of a lot of things but for a very short time on=
We saw before how we could modulate consciousness radiation through cannabi=
noids and benzodiazepines.
But the fact to be REMEMBERED here is that consciousness is nothing else th=
at a metabolic activation of a memory zone!
Consciousness becomes then easily understandable and is not mysterious anym=
In particular we do not need anymore to introduce crazy mystical ideas or c=
razy ideas arising from quantum mechanics(!)in order to understand what is =
The study of consciousness is a problem of informational neurobiology.
It has nothing to do whatsoever with religion or physics.

What is a thought?

To analyse what is a thought we have to reason,first,through the observatio=
n of visual informational objects.
By definition a simple visual thought will contain only one informational o=
bject evolving in time through an alternance of MCV and MHV memory.
For example,the observation of a moving three-dimensional mushroom in the i=
maginary space-time of consciousness giving,suddenly,rise(through a MHV jum=
p) to an ashtray with a candle inside is a simple visual thought.
Likewise,a complex visual thought will be composed of an undefined number o=
f informational objects,each following their own path of MHV modifications.=
However,in complex visual thoughts informational objects can interact betwe=
en themselves,giving rise to more complexity.
In the simple visual thought of a mushroom transforming itself into an asht=
ray with a candle inside there is a locus in our memory where the mushroom =
and the ashtray and candle INTERSECTS.
This locus is called an INTERSECTION.
A thought can evolve in time only by passing through intersections.Intersec=
tions are at the basis of potential intelligence.When intersections become =
more and more complex then intelligence,progressively,emerges from such a k=
ind of memory.In fact,it is difficult to conceive intelligences based on di=
fferent types of memories...Intersections seem to be a MUST for the birth o=
f intelligence.For instance,if there were no intersections in our memory th=
en we would stay visually paralysed with the never-ending observation of a =
single mushroom,in our above example!
Our memory is,in fact,A VAST ARRAY OF INTERSECTIONS between informational o=
A thought,on a small time interval,can then be defined as a sum of intersec=
tions plus the sum of their potential mutual interactions.
This applies to vision,sound,olfaction,etc.
Biological memories are INTERSECTING MEMORIES where everything is intertwin=
ed,interconnected, and thus highly "compressed".
Moreover,the nature of MHV domains makes the imaginary space-time of memory=
 a bit similar to a fractal but this does NOT mean that memory is,in fact, =
a fractal!
Much more work is needed in order to evaluate this idea!

Intersecting Memories store informations only once

In an intersecting memory,like our memory,every perception IS NOT stored in=
 its entirety.
For example,if my memory has stored one complete head of a person,it will t=
hen store another head by taking the first head as a reference.Only DIFFERE=
NCES between the two dissimilar heads will be stored.Everything similar is =
So with the passing of time we,in fact,STORE LESS AND LESS informations as =
all redundancy is eliminated! This explains why our memory seems so huge wi=
th no end!
The only thing we seem to store continuously are time coordinates as those =
time coordinates are NECESSARY for the expression of MCV memory.But even he=
re,I am sure our memory should use a trick to make that work simpler!
What is important to have in mind is that any informational object is,in fa=
ct,a time hybrid of past stored informations with some small additions of n=
ew informations.

On Disattenuations(Hallucinations)
Disattenuations generated by hallucinogens(disattenuating molecules)are not=
 always identical in nature.
They can be classified into different classes,which points to the underlyin=
g nervous structures reponsible of these:

I.Serotoninergic hallucinations
2.Cholinergic hallucinations
3.Hallucinations induced by NMDA receptors ligands
5.Cannabinoid hallucinations

Serotoninergic disattenuations are coloured and represent,often,reiterated =
rotating or static informational objects.
Serotonin can be,simultaneously,a pro-attenuation molecule or a disattenuat=
ing molecule,depending,probably,on its balance of effects on dopamine.
For instance,most serotoninergic reuptake blockers increase attenuation.Thi=
s increase in attenuation is believed to be a consequence of DIMINISHED dop=
amine neurotransmission.
However,fluoxetine is an atypical serotoninergic reuptake blocker as it can=
 induce insomnia,subhallucinations and better recall of dreams contrary to =
fluvoxamine,for instance,which is a typical serotoninergic reuptake blocker=
Typical SSRIs INCREASE attenuation and sleep.They also suppress dream recal=
l and can have a beneficial effects on headaches,contrary to fluoxetine.
Fluoxetine,very probably,mildly stimulates  5-HT2A serotoninergic receptors=
 thus giving rise to all the atypical effects observed with this molecule.N=
o pro-attenuation phenomena have been noticed under fluoxetine,CONTRARY to =
other SSRIs like fluvoxamine or zimelidine.
Cholinergic hallucinations are,apparently, black and white in nature and co=
me,suddenly,by flashes.The appearance of letters have often been noticed wi=
th anti-cholinergics.Sometimes these letters appeared in a reiterated way.
Complex black and white,translucent,3 D images can be observed.These images=
 "vibrate" a bit like if they were made of some semi-solid flowing water.
Contrary to serotonin,which is involved in attenuation and disattenuation,a=
cetylcholine seems to be only involved in disattenuation:blocking cholinerg=
ic neurotransmission can give rise to hallucinations but increase in cholin=
ergic transmission DOES NOT increase attenuation,as demonstrated with piloc=
NMDA  receptors antagonists give rise to disattenuations.How this exactly w=
orks is unclear but demonstrates that glutamate is involved in these phenom=
As risperidone can,apparently, block hallucinations induced by phencyclidin=
e and related compounds it is assumed that glutamate may,indirectly, act as=
 a 5-HT2A receptor stimulant.
The nature of hallucinations induced by NMDA receptors antagonists seems to=
 be more complex than those induced by direct 5-HT2A agonists.Unfortunately=
,I have not studied this by myself so I cannot elaborate more on that topic=
Buprenorphine,an opiate,can induce interesting faint hallucinations consist=
ing of transparent images of animated people,for instance.
The more you concentrate,in darkness,under buprenorphine and the more you f=
eel "closer" to these hallucinations and,sometimes,you may start even to en=
gage in imaginary conversations with imaginary people.
Typically with buprenorphine you may feel surrounded by people or "presence=
s" all around you.I presume that a person engaged in this activity may comp=
letely loose contact with reality!
No reiterative phenomena have been noticed by myself.
Buprenorphine induced hallucinations remind what people have reported under=
 NMDA receptors antagonists or the natural diterpene hallucinogen Salvinori=
ne A.
Cannabinoid hallucinations are generated only with heavy doses of cannabis =
They are coloured and animated and exhibit typical MHV transformations.Cann=
abinoid hallucinations are not only visual but also auditory and consists o=
f sounds increasing and then decreasing in intensity and also transforming =
into other sound patterns through audio MHVs.
Sometimes red colour seems to predominate,like with MDMA induced hallucinat=
ions or just simple hallucinations induced by concentration.However,MDMA ha=
llucinations differ from cannabinoids hallucinations as informationnal obje=
cts appear as if composed of a multitude of stacked slices.The red colour p=
redominates under MDMA while disattenuations induced by psilocine start(in =
my case)by a sudden intensification of darkness:closing your eyes you seem =
to observe an extraordinary intensity of black spreading all over your visu=
al field! Then reddish or greenish "treillis" shapes appear giving rise to =
informational objects flowing through MHVs.
An interesting observation under cannabinoids is the appearance of a red tu=
nnel where you seem to be moving inside.The entrance of this tunnel is like=
 the corolla of a Convolvulus flower!
This reminds the descriptions of people who were near to death...
Concerning cannabinoids you can notice a strong time distorsion which seems=
 gabaergic in nature as it can be substantially reduced by gabaergic agents=
 such as benzodiazepines,at least when the dose of cannabinoids is subjecti=
vely small.
GABA is also involved in attenuation as benzodiazepines enhance attenuation=
 while privation of benzodiazepines in a benzodiazepine-dependent subject g=
ives rise to disattenuations.Baclofene,a GABA B agonist,can induce false re=
calls,during the waking state,similar to what can be experienced in dreams.=
You will properly observe exoreality under baclofene but you will have a lo=
t of imaginary memories interfering with your thinking.

Claude Rifat(A Suivre.To be continued)

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