"Martin Brown" <|||firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote in message news:d7p8ik$s9u$1 at news7.svr.pol.co.uk...
[Prologue: Please Forgive me if, in what I've
written, below, I seem to you to be overly-
"certain of myself". I'd be less-"direct" if it
weren't that I'm deep within other Problems.
It's because of that that I've been "direct" in
what I've written -- can only "spare" this
much from the other stuff I'm doing.]
All of what's been refered to as "learning"
is is the occurrence of "microscopic trophic
[growth] modifications" [micro-mods]
within neural and glial structure, at =any=
So, since such "micro-mods' occur through-
out nervous systems, "learning' occurs
=throughout= nervous systems.
Where folks've had 'difficulty' with respect
to such is that, yes, certain extremely-power-
ful "information"-handling operations have
"migrated" to "the brain" be-cause such
"migration" increases nervous systems'
overall information-processing capacities
[mainly by minimizing the energy-consump-
tion of the neural- and glial-activation dyn-
amics, inherent -- if less energy is required
to perform specific information-processing
work, a nervous system will be able to per-
form relatively-more of such information-
Such "migration" of functionality to "brains"
tends, strongly, to shorten circuit-lengths, thus
allowing further increases in energy-efficiency,
which, as a side-benefit, results in increases
in information-processing quantity per unit
'time' [which, =NOTE WELL= is =JUST=
energy-efficiency [that is, the "per unit 'time'"
stuff is a "red herring" because the =ONLY=
thing that's of-Consequence within nervous
system function is relative energy-consump-
tion. What's been referred to as "time" is
'just' a man-made ordering principle with
respect to quantities of energy involved in
So [anyway :-] all the stuff you've read [as
was referred to in your post] misses every-
thing that matters.
"Learning" is =distributed= within nervous
systems. Wherever there're "microscopic
trophic modifications", =there= is "learning".
It's 'just' that, over the eons, evolutionary
dynamics have worked to augment the
energy-efficiency of nervous systems'
functional organizations, with the result
being, as above, that certain "high-'level'
information-peocessing functions have
"migrated" to "the brain".
Within all of such, =nothing= can be "dis-
counted". =All= of it is "equipotent" [after
Karl Lashley] within nervous system func-
tion. [Having "arms" and "hands" comes
at a "cost" within overall nervous system
3-D energydynamics, but also brings
huge benefits with respect to organisms'
capacities for acting-upon, and within,
their experiential external environments --
and, overall, all of this stuff is "equipotent"
with respect to the overall information-
processing Problem that confronts nerv-
ous systems, and with respect to which
nervous systems are physically-ordered.]
This's Demonstrated, for instance, when,
if a limb is lost, the higher-'level' ["brain"]
areas, to and from which the limb was form-
erly interconnected by neural pathways,
literally undergo physical disintegration,
subsequently ['typically'] being "reoccupied"
by information-processing functionalities
whose purposes remain intact. [See ac-
counts of the "phantom limb" phenomenon.]
So, rather than being concerned with "where"
"learning" occurs, a better approach is to
comprehend how and why "learning" oc-
curs everywhere within nervous systems.
Then, everything "falls-into-place".
Cheers, Mr. Brown, ken [k. p. collins]