sugar vs artificial sweeteners-- comment by SS Schiffman; Melanie Warner, NY Times: Murray 2005.05.14

Rich Murray rmforall at att.net
Sun May 15 00:56:59 EST 2005


http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1168
sugar vs artificial sweeteners-- comment by SS Schiffman; Melanie Warner, NY
Times: Murray 2005.05.14

Dr. S. S. Schiffman, certainly an eminent, expert researcher, often on
problems of smell and taste impairment in seniors, has for decades been
performing pro-aspartame studies, funded by the industry.

The 11% methanol component of aspartame is immediately released into the GI
tract, and soon always largely converted into formaldehyde and then formic
acid.   In 2004 the World Health Organization officially certified
formaldehyde as a human carcinogen.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol--  1,120 mg aspartame  in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans,  gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).   If 30% of
the methanol is turned into formaldehyde, the amount of formaldehyde is 18
times the EPA limit for daily formaldehyde in drinking water, 2 mg in 2 L
water.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1131
genotoxicity of aspartame in human lymphocytes 2004.07.29 full plain text,
Rencuzogullari E et al, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey 2004 Aug: Murray
2004.11.06 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1088
Murray, full plain text & critique: chronic aspartame in rats affects
memory, brain cholinergic receptors, and brain chemistry, Christian B,
McConnaughey M et al, 2004 May: 2004.06.05 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1067
eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame, AM Hill & DV
Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1165
short review: research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid):
Murray 2005.05.08

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1071
research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray
2004.04.29 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1143
methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition: Bouchard M et al, full
plain text, 2001: substantial sources are degradation of fruit pectins,
liquors, aspartame, smoke: Murray 2005.04.02 rmforall

Rich Murray, MA  Room For All  rmforall at comcast.net  505-501-2298
1943 Otowi Road    Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505   USA
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
group with 184 members, 1,168 posts in a public, searchable archive
*************************************************************


"Dr. Susan Schiffman, a sweetener specialist and professor of medical
psychology at Duke University Medical Center, says she has safety concerns
about sucralose, which is the nation's fastest-growing sugar replacement,
according to the Freedonia Group, a research firm. She points to the Food
and Drug Administration's 1998 report giving approval for sucralose, which
said the compound is "weakly mutagenic in a mouse lymphoma mutation assay,"
meaning it caused minor genetic damages in mouse cells.

The report also said one of the substances produced when sucralose is broken
down in the body is "weakly mutagenic in the Ames test." An Ames test is the
standard method used to detect possible carcinogens.

"The sucralose people keep saying 'It's just a little bit of a mutagen,' "
Dr. Schiffman said. "Well, I don't want a little bit of a mutagen in my food
supply. How do you know what happens in a long life span or to the next
generation or to your eggs and sperm? I don't feel like the issues have been
answered.""



http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/15/business/15sugar.html?hp&ex=1116129600&en=c35c5f6c402f9609&ei=5094&partner=homepage

Low Carbs? Who Cares? Sugar Is Latest Supermarket Demon

By MELANIE WARNER  Published: May 15, 2005

Last summer, as the low-carbohydrate dieting craze began to fade, executives
at Stonyfield Farms decided they had to make a change to their Moove Over
Carbs yogurt.

Mike Mergen for The New York Times   [ photo ]
Reduced-sugar products at a supermarket in Bala Cynwyd, Pa. Food makers are
rushing to meet demand for such products.

Sales of Reduced-Sugar Products

What they came up with was simple and painless: In January, they pulled
Moove Over Carbs from the shelves, and this month, Moove Over Sugar takes
its place. Except for the name, the product remains exactly the same -
sugars are, after all, also carbs. Both yogurts contain a sugar substitute
and have at least 40 percent fewer calories than Stonyfield Farm's regular
flavored varieties.

Low-sugar has become the new low-carb. Food makers are rushing to meet
demand from consumers concerned with their waistlines and healthier eating
by providing an array of new products, some of them aimed at children. But
scientists are divided over how positive this development is, questioning
whether the change will help people lose weight, and how healthful the
artificial sweeteners are.

According to a survey done by the Grocery Manufacturers Association, a food
industry trade group, almost 50 percent of all grocery shoppers said they
were looking for products with reduced sugar.

"Carbs was a trend, but the concern about sugar is here to stay," said
Cathleen Toomey, vice president of communications at Stonyfield Farms, which
is owned by Groupe Danone of France.

Just about every major food company is thinking along these lines. Among the
new products being offered are Pepperidge Farm Sugar Free Milano cookies,
Arnold Smart & Healthy Sugar Free bread and General Mills 75% Less Sugar
Cocoa Puffs.

Propelled in part by the popularity of the sugar substitute sucralose, or
Splenda, the food industry last year introduced 2,225 sugarless or
sugar-reduced products in the United States, according to the research firm
Productscan Online. This figure is more than double that of two years ago
and represents 11 percent of all new products in 2004.

By contrast, in 2004, the height of the low-carb boom, there were 3,375
products introduced, accounting for 19 percent of all new products that
year, according to Productscan. This year, low-carb product introductions
from January through April were down 25 percent from the same period last
year.

Last week, ACNielsen identified both organic and low or no sugar as the two
"good for you" food segments that will get products noticed by consumers and
generate the strongest sales growth. Many of these new low-sugar products
are not just the old standbys like diet sodas and sugarless gum, but foods
and drinks like cereals, fruit juices, cookies, bread, ice cream, flavored
milk, pasta sauce, maple syrup and even bottled water.

A few of these products, like Kellogg's 1/3 Less Sugar Froot Loops and
Frosted Flakes cereals, and Mott's Healthy Harvest apple sauce, simply have
less added sugar and taste less sweet. But most are made with one or more of
the half-dozen no-calorie artificial sweeteners on the market and are
designed to taste much like the original.

While many nutritionists champion artificial sweeteners as a way to cut
calories and reduce sugar, others say these products are not the answer to
America's weight and health problems. Some critics voice concern about the
increased consumption of what are essentially chemical sweeteners,
especially among children. New low-sugar products, like breakfast cereal and
fruit juice sweetened with Splenda and vanilla milk with neotame, a new
intensely sweet sugar replacement, are consumed heavily by children.

Dr. Susan Schiffman, a sweetener specialist and professor of medical
psychology at Duke University Medical Center, says she has safety concerns
about sucralose, which is the nation's fastest-growing sugar replacement,
according to the Freedonia Group, a research firm. She points to the Food
and Drug Administration's 1998 report giving approval for sucralose, which
said the compound is "weakly mutagenic in a mouse lymphoma mutation assay,"
meaning it caused minor genetic damages in mouse cells.

The report also said one of the substances produced when sucralose is broken
down in the body is "weakly mutagenic in the Ames test." An Ames test is the
standard method used to detect possible carcinogens.

"The sucralose people keep saying 'It's just a little bit of a mutagen,' "
Dr. Schiffman said. "Well, I don't want a little bit of a mutagen in my food
supply. How do you know what happens in a long life span or to the next
generation or to your eggs and sperm? I don't feel like the issues have been
answered."

McNeil Nutritionals, a division of Johnson & Johnson that sells Splenda,
says that the safety of sucralose has been confirmed in more than 100
studies done over the last 20 years, and that it has been approved for use
by regulatory agencies around the world. Over the years, sweeteners like
saccharin and aspartame have also prompted various safety concerns.

Sales of Reduced-Sugar Products

Other critics of artificial sweeteners focus their concerns on whether these
foods and beverages actually help people lose weight or improve their diets.
According to a consumer survey done last year by the Calorie Control
Council, a trade group representing the low-calorie and reduced-fat food and
beverage industry, people use sugar-reduced products primarily to "stay in
overall better health" and "reduce calories."

Dr. Stuart Fischer, who worked for nine years with the low-carb diet
specialist Dr. Robert Atkins and now runs his own nutrition practice in
Manhattan, contends that artificial sweeteners do nothing for a person's
"overall health" because they perpetuate cravings for sweet foods.

"They remind dieters about the taste of the forbidden fruit," Dr. Fischer
said. "Does Alcoholics Anonymous recommend alcohol-free beer? Of course
not." Dr. Fischer said he counsels patients to cut out all sweet foods from
their diet to eliminate sugar cravings, which he says can lay the groundwork
for Type II diabetes.

Dr. David Katz, a nutrition specialist and professor of public health at the
Yale University School of Medicine, says that in his 15 years of treating
patients he has observed that people who consume a lot of artificially
sweetened foods also end up eating an excess of foods loaded with regular
sugar, negating any savings in calories. "If you're exposed to sweet foods
and drinks often, the threshold for satisfaction goes up," Dr. Katz said.

As in many areas of science, research findings on the issue are mixed. While
some studies, such as one done last year at Purdue University, support the
ideas of people like Dr. Katz and Dr. Fischer, other, longer-term research
has shown that people who consume artificially sweetened, no-calorie
beverages do lose more weight than those drinking regular, full-calorie
sodas.

Yet almost all of these studies have looked at zero-calorie diet drinks, not
low-sugar foods like Sugar Free Milano cookies and 50% Less Sugar Quaker
Instant Oatmeal, which still have calories.

Some of these products, in fact, have as many calories as the original,
making things confusing for the consumer. According to information displayed
on box labels, 1/3 Less Sugar Frosted Flakes and Froot Loops, 75% Less Sugar
Cocoa Puffs and Trix, and 50% Less Sugar Fruity Pebbles cereals are not
significantly lower in calories than the original versions. Neither are
Sugar Free Milanos or Arnold Smart & Healthy Sugar Free bread.

Christine M. Homsey, a senior research food scientist at Food Perspectives,
a consulting firm in Plymouth, Minn., explained that because sugar provides
bulk, manufacturers add more flour or other grains to make up for the loss,
putting calories back in.

In March, a woman in San Diego who said she thought the reduced-sugar
cereals she bought for her children were lower in calories sued Kellogg,
General Mills and Kraft Foods, saying that the companies used misleading
marketing to sell the products.

The confusion over calorie counts and whether sugar-free foods will really
help individuals lose weight has not deterred consumers from buying $1
billion worth of low-sugar products in the last year. According to ACNielsen
LabelTrends, sales of ready-to-eat, less-sugar cereal jumped 63 percent in
the last 52 weeks, and revenue from the expanding universe of all low-sugar
products is up 133 percent from a year ago.

Eager to meet this growing demand, food companies are working furiously to
devise even better ways of replicating the taste and function of sugar in
food. All current sugar substitutes have aftertastes and other flaws that
distinguish them from sugar, food scientists say. Many food specialists
attribute Splenda's runaway success to its sugar-like taste, but they say
that it, too, falls short.

"The holy grail remains elusive," said Kantha Shelke, a food scientist who
has worked for food manufacturers like Pillsbury and Interstate Bakeries.
"The perfect sweetener would be something that looks like sugar and acts
like sugar in every way, except when you metabolize it."

Despite the concerns of some scientists and doctors about artificial
sweeteners, the trend of low-sugar foods and beverages shows no signs of
slowing. While stores like Whole Foods do not stock products that contain
artificial sweeteners, a majority of consumers have welcomed these food
additives into their diets.

Katherine Tallmadge, a registered dietician in Washington, said she did not
encourage her patients to use artificial sweeteners, but some do anyway.
"People are hooked on sweets and they want to eat sweet foods without the
calories," Ms. Tallmadge said. "It's a classic case of wanting your cake and
eating it too."
*************************************************************

http://www.askdoctorfischer.com/   Stuart Fischer, M.D.
133 East 58th St.   Suite 401   NY, NY 10022-1236
phone: 212-893-8478    info at askdoctorfischer.com

David Katz  david.katz at yale.edu
title: Assoc Clin Prof Epid/Public Health/Medicine
ffice_location: LEPH 314  office_phone: 303-785-6283

Christine M. Homsey  chomsey at foodperspectives.com

Kantha Shelke, Ph.D., is a principal at Corvus Blue LLC, a Chicago-based
firm that specializes in competitive intelligence and expert witness
services. The firm helps businesses and professional organizations in the
health and wellness sector to focus on what matters most.

Kantha Shelke  Suite 3102  750 North Rush  Chicago, IL   60611
Phone: 312-951-5810  Fax: 312-951-5812  E-mail: kantha at ais.net

http://www.dietsimple.info/katherine_tallmadge.html
Question at DietSimple.info

************************************************************

Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, E951), after eight years of
controversy, was suddenly and capriciously approved by a new FDA
commissioner,  Arthur Hull Hayes, Jr,  just appointed by President Reagan, a
pharmacologist who had been in office less than three months and had little
background in food additives, in July 1981, overturning the vote of his own
Scientific Board of Inquiry.

Aspartame is made of phenylalanine (50% by weight) and aspartic acid (39%),
both ordinary amino acids, bound loosely together by methanol (wood alcohol,
11%).   The readily released methanol from aspartame is within hours turned
by the liver into formaldehyde and then formic acid, both potent, cumulative
toxins.

A team in a Searle Co. lab, led by J.A. Oppermann proved that 30% of the
methanol in aspartame fed to rats remained, indubitably as toxic products of
formaldehyde and formic acid in all tissues (1973, 1976).

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/925
aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
full text, Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22 rmforall

This was confirmed by an expert team at the University of Barcelona (Trocho,
Alemany et al, 1998):
"...the binding of methanol-derived carbon to tissue proteins was
widespread, affecting all systems, fully reaching even sensitive targets
such as the brain and retina...These are indeed extremely high levels for
adducts of formaldehyde, a substance responsible for chronic deleterious
effects (33), that has also been considered carcinogenic (33,47)."

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016
President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the gastrointestinal
tract to become free methyl alcohol, which is metabolized in the liver to
formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level methanol
exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.   M. Soffritti et al.  Cancer
Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr at tin.it

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1077
eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton,
MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall
Despite the very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
statistically significant.  The eight depressed patients reported with
aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness, trouble
remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise.

Many scientific studies and case histories report:  * headaches  * many body
and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching, spasms, cramps,
stiffness, numbness, difficulty swallowing)  *  fever, fatigue, swollen
glands  * "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech, sexual
problems,  poor vision, hearing (deafness, tinnitus), or taste  * red face,
itching, rashes, allergic dermatitis, hair loss, burning eyes or throat, dry
eyes or mouth, mouth sores, burning tongue  * obesity, bloating, edema,
anorexia, poor appetite or excessive hunger or thirst    * breathing
problems, shortness of breath * nausea, diarrhea or constipation  * coldness
* sweating  * racing heart, low or high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar
levels  * hypothryroidism or hyperthyroidism  * seizures  * birth defects
*  brain cancers  * addiction  * aggrivates diabetes, autism, allergies,
lupus, ADHD, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical
sensitivity, multiple sclerosis, pseudotumor cerebri and interstitial
cystitis (bladder pain).

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927
Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
Turner: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm   Mark Gold
exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific Committee on Food re
aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1065
politicians and celebrities hooked on diet sodas (aspartame): Murray
2004.03.24 rmforall

http://google.com  gives 669,000 websites for "aspartame" , with the top 7
of 10 listings being anti-aspartame, while
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed   lists 786 aspartame items.
************************************************************

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/835
ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999:
Murray 2002.05.30 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/782
RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 2002.01.17 rmforall
Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt, and John G Gums
Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following
Discontinuation of Dietary Excitotoxins.
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702-706.
Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder that is
often difficult to treat effectively.
CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome
for two to 17 years are described.
All had undergone multiple treatment
modalities with limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete,
resolution of their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium
glutamate (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
All patients were women with multiple comorbidities
prior to elimination of MSG.
All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.

Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD  Asst. Clinical Prof.  siggy at shands.ufl.edu
Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
Shands Hospital West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629
352-376-5071


http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/864
Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
adducts in rats: Murray 2002.09.08 rmforall
Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
against criticism:
Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
available for $35, [an industry paid organ].  Butchko:
"When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."

In the same report, Schiffman concludes on page S49, not citing any
research after 1997, "Thus, the weight of the scientific evidence
indicates that aspartame does not cause headache."
Dr. Susan S. Schiffman, Dept. of Psychiatry, Duke University
sss at acpub.duke.edu    919-684-3303, 660-5657

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/911
RTP ties to industry criticized by CSPI: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/846
aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks: Murray 2002.07.16 rmforall

Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
Newman LC, Lipton RB  Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
[ Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg. ]
Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
Department of Neurology   newmanache at aol.com
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
Innovative Medical Research   RLipton at IMRInc.com

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/855
Blumenthall & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997:
Murray 2002.07.28 rmforall

Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
Chewing Gum Headaches. Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
Tulsa, USA.   neurotulsa at aol.com
Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
gum sweetened with aspartame. [ 6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum ]


Finally, an intripid and much published team in Japan has found DNA damage
in 8 tissues from single non-lethal doses of aspartame (near-significant
high levels of DNA damage in 5 tissues) and many other additives in groups
of just 4 mice:

Mutat Res 2002 Aug 26; 519(1-2): 103-19
The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food
additives.
Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Ohshita M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K,
Taniguchi K, Tsuda S.
Laboratory of Genotoxicity, Faculty of Chemical and Biological
Engineering, Hachinohe National College of Technology,
Tamonoki Uwanotai 16-1, Aomori 039-1192, Japan.
yfsasaki-c at hachinohe-ct.ac.jp  s.tsuda at iwate-u.ac.jp

We determined the genotoxicity of 39 chemicals currently in use as food
additives.
They fell into six categories-dyes, color fixatives and
preservatives, preservatives, antioxidants, fungicides, and sweeteners.

We tested groups of four male ddY mice once orally with each additive at
up to 0.5xLD(50) or the limit dose (2000mg/kg) and performed the comet
assay on the glandular stomach, colon, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, lung,
brain, and bone marrow 3 and 24 h after treatment.

Of all the additives, dyes were the most genotoxic.
Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, Tartrazine, Erythrosine, Phloxine, and
Rose Bengal induced dose-related DNA damage in the glandular stomach, colon,
and/or urinary bladder.   All seven dyes induced DNA damage in the
gastrointestinal organs at a low dose (10 or 100mg/kg).

Among them, Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, and Tartrazine induced
DNA damage in the colon at close to the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs).

Two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT)), three fungicides (biphenyl, sodium
o-phenylphenol, and thiabendazole), and four sweeteners (sodium
cyclamate, saccharin, sodium saccharin, and sucralose) also induced DNA
damage in gastrointestinal organs.

Based on these results, we believe that more extensive assessment of
food additives in current use is warranted.  PMID: 12160896

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/934
24 recent formaldehyde toxicity [Comet assay] reports:
Murray 2002.12.31 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S  Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
[ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
a very high dose.]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/961
genotoxins, Comet assay in mice: Ace-K, stevia fine; aspartame poor;
sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin bad: Y.F. Sasaki Aug 2002:
Murray 2003.01.27 rmforall   [A detailed look at the data]     ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/857
www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/858
Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold:  flaws in double-blind studies re
aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01 rmforall

"Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
sources," 1998, unpublished:   http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
OH 44501    330-740-3621    rwalton193 at aol.com
http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/622
Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall   four double-blind studies

Headache 1988 Feb; 28(1): 10-4
The effect of aspartame on migraine headache.
Koehler SM, Glaros A     PMID: 3277925, UI: 88138777
Shirley  M. Koehler, PhD   904-858-7651   skoehler at brookshealth.org
http://www.med.umich.edu/abcn/alpha/alpha-K.html#Koehler
Alan Glaros  glarosa at umkc.edu  816-235-2074

They conducted a double-blind study of patients, ages 18-55, who had
a medical diagnosis of classical migraines (normally having 1-3
migraines in 4-weeks), who were not on medications (other than
analgesics), and who suspected that aspartame had a negative effect on
their migraine headaches. The subjects were given 1200 mg daily,
aspartame or placebo, for four weeks, about 17 mg/kg.  The placebo
group had no increase in headaches.  Approximately half of the subjects
(5 of 11) who took aspartame had a large, statistically significant
(p = 0.02), increase in migraine headache frequency, but not in
intensity or duration, compared to baseline or placebo.  Only 11 of
25 subjects completed the program: 8 dropped out, 4 began new
medications, 2 had incomplete records.  They were at home.
Since 1/3 of the subjects dropped out, they may have been choosing
to avoid headaches-- were they unpaid?  To achieve statistical
signifance with only 11 subjects hints that the incidence rate from
aspartame is very high, about 1/2,  for migraine cases who believe
that they are hurt by aspartame.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1077
eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton,
MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall

Walton, RG, "Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge in
patients from a vulnerable population," 1993,  with Robert Hudak and
Ruth J. Green-Waite,  Biological Psychiatry, 34 (1), 13-17.
Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
OH 44501    330-740-3621    rwalton193 at aol.com
http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

Eight depressed patients, ages 24-60, and five non-depressed controls,
ages 24-56, employed at the hospital, were given for 7 days either
aspartame or a placebo, and then after a 3 day break, given the
opposite.  Each got 2100 mg  aspartame daily, 30 mg/kg bodyweight,
equal to 10-12 cans of diet soda daily, about a gallon.  Despite the
very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
statistically significant.  The eight depressed patients reported with
aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness,
trouble remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise. (For each
symptom, p<0.01)  The five normals did not report strong enough
differences between aspartame and placebo to be significant.
Initially, the study was to be on a group of 40, but was halted by the
Institutional Review Board because of severe reactions among 3 of the
depressed patients.

Again, statistical significance with only 8 depressed patients:
"In this study, patients most often began to report significant
symptoms after day 2 or 3."  The incidence rate is very high,
indeed, about 1/3.  The most common symptoms are entirely typical
of thousands of case histories.

Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, T.D. Koepsell, W.T. Longstreth, Jr,
G. van Belle, J.R. Daling, B. McKnight, "Aspartame ingestion and
headaches: a randomized crossover trial," 1994, Neurology, 44, 1787-93
Steven K. Van Den Eeden,PhD  550-450-2202  skv at dor.kaiser.org
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program
3505 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611-5714
http://www.dor.kaiser.org/dorhtml/investigators/Stephen_Van_Den_Eeden.html

In their introduction, they comment:

"In addition, the FDA had received over 5,000 complaints as of July,
1991 in a passive surveillance system to monitor adverse side effects.
(17)  Neurologic problems constitute the primary complaints in these
and several other case series, with headaches accounting for
18 to 45 %,depending on the case series reported. (17-19)"

Subjects, ages 18-57, were recruited who believed they got headaches
from aspartame, but were otherwise mentally and physically healthy.
They were paid $ 15 total, and were at home. Of the 44 subjects, 32
contributed data to the 38-day trials: a week of inert placebo, a week
of either aspartame or placebo, followed by a week of the opposite, and
then this two-week cycle repeated.  The daily dose was about 30 mg/kg.
"The proportion of days subjects reported having a headache was
higher during aspartame treatment compared with placebo treatment
(aspartame = 0.33, placebo = 0.24; p = 0.04) (table 5)".
Of the 12 subjects not included in the data, 7 reported adverse
symptoms before withdrawing.

Again, statistical significance with a moderate number of healthy
subjects, willing to be recruited by a newspaper ad, who believed
aspartame hurt them.  The number of headaches for each subject
for each treatment week are given: it appears that 4 subjects
had the strongest increase in headaches from the run-in week
or placebo week to their first week on aspartame, jumping from 0 to 5,
1 to 6, 1 to 4, 0 to 5 headaches per week.  So, about 4 of the 44
healthy people recruited for the study, who believed aspartame hurt
them, had a stong increase in headaches from the first week of daily
asparame exposure, while 7 reported adverse symptoms before leaving,
a total of 11 out of 44, an incidence ratio of 1/4.

This is sky high, if we consider that, if the incidence ratio for the
about two hundred million users in the USA is 1 of 100, that is 2
million cases.  It is plausible that the incidence ratio lies between 1
and 10 out of 100 for continuous daily exposure.  These three flames
should have set off alarm bells, with extensive follow-up studies and
much more careful study of thousands of case histories.  But these
little flares were adroitly smothered by thick blankets of industry
funded fluff:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/623
Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall    two double-blind studies
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