Breaking the barriers between biology, chemistry and physics.

David R. Hershey dh321 at PGSTUMAIL.PG.CC.MD.US
Thu Oct 2 23:23:58 EST 1997

Many lines of evidence argue against transmutation of elements in living
organisms. For example, plants grown in nutrient solutions (hydroponics) 
with all but one of the essential elements get deficiency symptoms
characteristic of the missing element, even though other elements are
present in abundance. 

Most of the evidence presented in "Evidence that Atoms Behave Differently
in Biological Systems than Outside of Them" is incomplete and
circumstantial. The data can be explained more simply in other ways than
transmutation. For example, unless the organism is harvested and analysed,
the total amount of an element it contains is only an estimate, and
estimates can be incorrect. Chemical analysis is fraught with difficulties
and is never 100% accurate. Thus, there will always be some experimental
errors when doing mass balance experiments. One essential element may
partially substitute for another essential element. This may have occurred
in the chicken experiment.

The seed experiment did not consider the glass in the Petri dish as a
source of potassium. Soft glass contains potassium. The chicken egg
experiment did not include an analysis of the mica. It may have contained

A definitive test of the hypothesis would be to feed chickens a
calcium-free diet and radioactive magnesium. If magnesium is
transmuted to calcium, then the eggshells should contain radioactive

David R. Hershey

Snail mail: 6700 Belcrest Road #112, Hyattsville, MD 20782-1340

Adjunct Professor, Biology/Horticulture Dept.
Prince George's Community College, Largo, MD 20772-2199

Email: dh321 at


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