non-majors plant courses

Janice M. Glime jmglime at mtu.edu
Thu Jan 16 17:52:42 EST 2003


Dear Beverly and others,
  Too many years ago I took over our botany course, which at that time was
a mix of about equal numbers of majors and non-majors.  I faced the dilema
of how to interest the non-majors and give the majors what they needed at
the same time (majors meaning bio, not botany).  I found no textbook I
felt would do the job, so I wrote my own.  I have the chapters, then the
detailed table of contents listed below.  The course has evolved because
it now has mostly forestry and applied ecology students, about 10
non-majors, and about 8-10 bio majors, mostly secondary education and
plant science options.  Hence, I have added a section that is largely
morphology, using a different approach from my original course.  I used an
endangered species approach to those groups because there are a number of
them protected in Michigan.  See listing after my signature.

Janice
***********************************
 Janice M. Glime, Professor
 Department of Biological Sciences
 Michigan Technological University
 Houghton, MI 49931-1295
 jmglime at mtu.edu
 906-487-2546
 FAX 906-487-3167
***********************************

	1	Classification:  A Look to the Future	1
	2	Knowing the Organism:  The Body of a Plant	23
	3	Moving Water and Nutrients	37
	4	Greenhouse Gases and Photosynthetic Alternatives	65
	5	Purifying the Air:  Photosynthesis	91
	6	UV Light and the Ozone Shield	103
	7	Acid Rain or Liquid Fertilizer	127
	8	Ozone:  A Natural Pollutant	153
	9	Cyanobacteria:  The Nitrogen Fixers	163
	10	Legumes and Rhizobium	177
	11	Red Tides:  The Story of a Killer	187
	12	The Useful Algae and Aquatic Plants	201
	13	Chlorophyta, the Protoplants	211
	14	Heavy Metals and Plants	225
	15	Insectivorous Plants	251
	16	Nutrients and Hydroponics	263
	17	Invasion of Land:  Non-Tracheophytes	273
	18	Giants to Club Mosses:  Phylum Lycopodiophyta	301
	19	Wasteland Invaders:  Equisetophyta	319
	20	What Endangers the Ferns:  Polypodiophyta	329
	21	Disappearing Invaders:  Rhyniophyta and Psilotophyta
361
	22	Ginkgophyta:  A Temple Garden Relict	371
	23	Pinophyta:  The Fire Followers	381
	24	Feeding a Growing World	403
	25	Magnoliophyta:  A Look to the Future	423
	26	Plants for Food - And Other Uses	439
	27	Match Makers:  Pollination	467
	28	Go and Multiply:  Plant Propagation	491
	29	Medical Botany	503
Literature Cited	513
Glossary	533
Appendix	577
Index	583




Expanded  Table of Contents

	1	Classification:  A Look to the Future	1
	The Path to Nobel - A Feeling for the Organism	1
	What Is a Plant:  Knowing the organism	2
	The Kingdom Concept	2
	Nomenclature	3
	Life Cycles Differ Among Kingdoms and Phyla	6
	Plant Definition	13
	Flowers		14
	Knowing the Place of the Organism:  The Seed Plants	14
	Liliopsida and Magnoliopsida (monocots and dicots)	15
	2	Knowing the Organism:  The Body of a Plant	23
	Roots	23
	Stems	27
		Xylem	27
		Support	28
		Storage Stems:  The Rhizome	29
	Leaves	31
	3	Moving Water and Nutrients	37
			Carbohydrate Movement Up and Down, Phloem	37
			Conduction of Water Up:  Xylem	42
		Water Entry into the Root	42
		Movement across the Root - Through Cells or between Them
43
		Capillary Action	43
		Assuring the Right Path:  The Endodermis	45
		The Ascent of Water	46
		A New Paradigm?  The Compensating Pressure Theory	49
	Wilting	53
	Need for Aeration of Roots	53
	Controlling the Gate:  Guard Cells	54
	Adaptations to Winter Water Loss	58
	Genetic Engineering for Drought Protection	61
	Sap Flow in a Sugar Maple - Xylem and Phloem Action	61
	4	Greenhouse Gases and Photosynthetic Alternatives	65
			Carbon Dioxide	65
			Temperature Effects of CO2:  The Greenhouse Effect
66
			Ice Age	67
			Nuclear Winter	67
			Past Experience	68
			Alternative Pathways for Plants to Store CO2	71
			C3 and C4 Pathways	72
			Temperature Effects	76
			Effects of CO2 Concentration on Photosynthesis	77
			CO2 Compensation Point	78
			CO2 Effects on C3 and C4 Plants	79
			Responses to Light Intensity	80
			Ecosystem Effects of Increased CO2 on C3 vs C4	80
			Advantages of Being C4	81
			Global Warming and Plant Migrations?	86
			Ethylene - The Gaseous Hormone	88
	5	Purifying the Air:  Photosynthesis	91
			Sources of Pollutants	91
			Oxygen	92
			How Do Plants Make New Tissues?	92
			Future for Artificial Photosynthesis Shines -
Capturing Light Energy	94
			The Miraculous Chlorophyll	95
			MTU's Nobel Prize Winner - Carbon Fixation	97
			The Big Picture	98
			Biological Overview	100
	6	UV Light and the Ozone Shield	103
			Ozone Effects on Ultraviolet Radiation	103
			Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on Plants	104
			Protective Devices	107
			Structural Protection and the Life Cycle
111
			Avoidance Strategies and Filters	115
			Marine Algae - in and out of Bright Light and
Water	116
			Adaptive Protection from UV Damage	124
	7	Acid Rain or Liquid Fertilizer	127
			Definition	127
			The Problem	128
			Historical Perspective	129
			Sources	129
			Sulfur as a Plant Nutrient	130
			Formation of Acids and Plant Responses	130
			Nutrient Availability	130
			Interaction of pH with Aluminum	131
			Plant Sensitivity and Symptoms	132
			Mycorrhizae	133
			Sensitivity and Adaptation	134
			Agricultural Impact	135
			Forests	136
			Mechanisms of Damage	142
			Lichens	143
			Acid Lakes - Are they really Dead?	148
			Succession in Lakes	149
			Acidified Streams	150
			Conclusions	150
	8	Ozone:  A Natural Pollutant	153
			Oxygen	153
			Ozone	153
			Natural Sources	153
			NOx and Ozone	154
			Entry to Plant	155
			Mode of Action	156
			Ozone Damage	157
			Vulnerability - It's those Teenage Years
159
			Interactions with other Pollutants	160
			Will our Rising CO2 Help	160
			Resistance to Ozone	160
			Monitoring Ozone Levels	161
			Summary of Kinds of Ozone Effects	161
	9	Cyanobacteria:  The Nitrogen Fixers	163
			Cyanobacteria	163
			From Whence the Nitrogen?	164
			Nitrogen Metabolism	165
			Nitrogen Fixation	165
			Cyanobacteria	166
			Spirulina - Complete Source of Amino Acids
170
			Annie, Fanny, and Mike	173
			Oscillatoria	175
			Other Trouble-makers	175
	10	Legumes and Rhizobium	177
			Nitrogen Deficiency	177
			Legumes and Rhizobium - Another Partnership
178
			Recognizing Each Other:  Lectins	178
			Fertilizer Effects on Lectins	179
			Invading the Root Hair	179
			Effects of Acid Rain	182
			Attempts ot Improve Crop Production	183
			Tissue Culture	183
			Gene Transposition	184
	11	Red Tides:  The Story of a Killer	187
			Dinoflagellates - The Armored Algae	187
			Contemporary Problems	188
			General Symptoms	188
			Toxicity of Mussels	189
			Causes of Blooms	189
			New England Visited by Bay of Fundy
Dinoflagellates	190
			Jim Breve:  Gymnodinium breve	192
			Life Cycle	193
			Control Methods	194
			Biological Control	194
			Satisfying EPA	196
			The Cell from Hell:  Pfiesteria piscicida
197
	12	The Useful Algae and Aquatic Plants	201
			Phosphorus Problems	201
			The Sewage Algae	202
			Phylum Chlorophyta:  Chlorella	202
			Phylum Chlorophyta:  Ulva 	205
			The World's Oil Supply:  Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
205
			Overview	207
			Solutions	207
			Pollutants and Duckweed Research	208
	13	Chlorophyta, the Protoplants	211
			Kingdom Protista	211
				Phylum Chlorophyta	211
				Charophytes:  Parents to Land Plants?
221
				Coleochaete	222
	14	Heavy Metals and Plants	225
			What are Heavy Metals?	225
			Sequestering Heavy Metals - Energy Requirements
226
			Susceptibility - Bryophytes Protect the Soil
226
			Copper	230
			Cadmium	232
			Lead	234
			Iron		237
			Magnesium	238
			Genetic Engineering as a Possible Solution
239
			Use of Mosses as Heavy Metal Biomonitors
239
			Tufa Mosses and Other Exchangers	242
			Sphagnum - a Unique Biomonitor and Bioaccumulator
242
			Making More - The Life Cycle	246
	15	Insectivorous Plants	251
			Sarracenia - Pitcher Plants	251
			Nepenthes	254
			Dionaea muscipula - Venus Fly Trap	255
			Drosera - Sundews	257
			Pinguicula vulgaris - Butterwort	259
			Utricularia - Bladderwort	260
	16	Nutrients and Hydroponics	263
			Nutrient Needs of Plants	263
			Phosphorus - The Fertilizer Problem	264
			Nitrogen - the Benefit from Acid Rain	265
			Potassium - the Leachable Nutrient	265
			Magnesium - the Center of Chlorophyll	266
			Calcium - the Cement Nutrient	266
			Iron		267
			Hydroponic Culture	268
	17	Invasion of Land:  Non-Tracheophytes	273
			The Invasion	273
			Non-tracheophytes:  Liverworts and Mosses
273
			Life Cycle:  A Curse or the Cure?	276
			Life Cycle	278
			Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta)	283
			Bryophyte Classification	290
			Role of Bryophytes	291
			Moss Gardens - A Fragile System	294
			Mosses (Bryophyta) - The Botanical Sponges
295
			Human Exploitation and Disturbance	298
			Genetic Engineering	299
	18	Giants to Club Mosses:  Phylum Lycopodiophyta	301
			Modern Lycopods	301
			Lycopodium	303
			Michigan Christmas Tree Act - Protection for
Lycopodium	309
			Keweenaw Peninsula Lycopodium Species	309
			Size Differences:  Megaspores and Microspores
313
			Selaginella	314
	19	Wasteland Invaders:  Equisetophyta	319
			Structure of Sporophyte	320
			Gametophytes	322
			Equisetum arvense - The Common Horsetail
323
			Equisetum sylvaticum - The Sulfur Accumulator
323
	20	What Endangers the Ferns:  Polypodiophyta	329
			The First Macrophylls	329
			The Frond	330
			Sori and Spores	331
			Gametophytes - Prothalli	334
			Pteridium aquilinum - Bracken Fern	338
			Asplenium (Phyllitis) scolopendrium (an endangered
species)	340
			Ophioglossopsida - Primitive or Advanced Ferns?
345
			The Heterosporous Aquatic Ferns	350
			Marsilea - Pepperwort	350
			Salvinia - Roundleaf Fern	358
			Azolla - Water Velvet	359
	21	Disappearing Invaders:  Rhyniophyta and Psilotophyta
361
			Rhyniophyta - The Progenitors?	361
			Psilotophyta	361
			Ode to Skinny Rhynia	367
			Evolutionary Tendencies	369
	22	Ginkgophyta:  A Temple Garden Relict	371
			Innovations	371
			Life Cycle	374
			Resin Ducts:  Secrets to Being a Living Fossil?
378
	23	Pinophyta:  The Fire Followers	381
			Fire in the Sequoias	382
			Adaptations to a Dry Habitat	384
			Life Cycle Requirements - Fire Is Important
387
			Transport of Sperm - the Pollen Grain	387
			Female Cones - Deflecting the Wind	389
			Seed Development	394
			Protection from Hungry Browsers	396
			Taxus - Cancer Cure or Poison?	397
			Deciduous Branches - The Taxodiaceae	397
	24	Feeding a Growing World	403
			New Foods	403
			Intercropping	404
			Organic Gardening	405
			Soils	405
			Food Quality	407
			The Herbicides	408
			Protecting Crops against Herbicides	411
			Soil Renewal	412
			Pest Control	413
			Vegetarian Diets	418
			Comparison of Plant Hormone Effects	421
	25	Magnoliophyta:  A Look to the Future	423
			The Primitive Flower	424
			The Life Cycle	427
				The Sporophyte	427
				Flowers	428
				Double Fertilization - The Beginning of
Endosperm	431
				Recapitulation - And Where Does It Go From
Here?	437
	26	Plants for Food - And Other Uses	439
			History	439
			Edible Parts of Plants	440
			Cereals	441
			Is the Tomato a Fruit or a Vegetable?	446
			Fruits	447
			Underground Crops	452
			Sugars	455
			Vegetables	456
			Legumes	457
			Tree Foods	457
			Chocolate	460
			Spices	461
			Problems in Feeding the World	462
			Increasing Productivity	462
			Fibers	464
			Botanical Sleuthing	464
	27	Match Makers:  Pollination	467
			Pollination Technology	468
			Cross Pollination	468
			Discrimination	470
			Wind Pollination - The Allergy-Causing Plants
471
			Water Pollination	474
			Gravity	475
			Bird Pollination	475
			Bat Pollination	477
			Insect Pollination	478
				Beetle Pollination	478
				Butterfly Pollination	479
				Moth Pollination	479
				Fly Pollination	481
				Bee Pollination	483
	28	Go and Multiply:  Plant Propagation	491
			Sexual (Seed) Propagation	491
				Seed Dormancy	492
				Hormonal Control of Germination	495
				Seed Storage	496
				Soil Effects on Germination	496
			Asexual (Vegetative) Reproduction	496
				Pest Precautions	497
				Cuttings	497
				Grafting	498
				Layering	499
				Division	501
	29	Medical Botany	503
			Allergy	503
			Botanical Cures	505
Literature Cited	513



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