BEN # 76
aceska at CUE.BC.CA
Fri Jun 24 20:00:50 EST 1994
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No. 76 June 24, 1994
aceska at freenet.victoria.bc.ca Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
RANDY STOLTMANN (1962-1994)
Randy Stoltmann died in a skiing accident in mountains near
Kitimat, B.C. on May 22, 1994.
"A native of Vancouver, Randy Stoltmann has an unquenchable
thirst for exploring, photographing and working to protect the
wilderness areas of the west coast. Combining his technical
background with his love for wilderness, Stoltmann has measured,
mapped and documented record-sized trees and ancient forests
since high school more than a decade ago. Much of his spare time
is spent hiking, bushwhacking and ski-mountaineering through the
backcountry of southwestern B.C." [from "About Author" in the
"Hiking guide to big trees of SW B.C."]
Randy was the first person to bring attention to the Carmanah
Valley and started a pleafor its protection. Randy was working
as a draftsman and decrying the lack of time in his life to
explore such wilderness places when Paul George, of the Western
Canada Wilderness Committee (WC**2) persuaded him to work full
time for WC**2. After about 3-1/2 to 4 years WC**2 had to
downsize and Randy worked independently for mountain clubs,
advocacy groups and wilderness organizations as an advocate for
Randy published three books and contributed photographs to
numerous other publications and journal articles.
Stoltmann, R. 1987 & 1991. Hiking guide to the big trees of
southwestern British Columbia. Western Canada Wilderness
Committee, Vancouver B.C., 144 p. - Second Edition, 218 p.
Stoltmann, R. 1993. Guide to the record trees of British Colum-
bia. Western Canada Wilderness Committee, Vancouver, B.C.
Stoltmann, R. 1993. Written by the wind. Orca Book Publishers,
Victoria, B.C. & White Rock, WA. 95 p.
I met Randy only once on a field trip to survey near record-size
western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) near Port Alberni [BEN #
36]. I was deeply impressed by his intimate knowledge of "big
trees" and their ecology. He was a giant human being and his
death is a great loss. - AC
LYME DISEASE - BORRELIA BURGDORFERI - IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sources: Dr. S.N. Banerjee (pers. comm.), Hospital Medicine
(August 1993: 53-64), VERONICA search on "LYME"
Lyme disease was first recognized during the 1970s when inves-
tigators analyzed an unusual cluster of juvenile arthritis in
coastal Connecticut. Erythema migrans (EM) served as a clinical
marker and field studies revealed ixodid ticks to be the vector.
In 1982 Burgdorfer visualized spirochetes in the midguts of
these ticks and serum from Lyme disease patients contained
antibodies to the spirochete. Soon thereafter, researchers
recovered and cultured spirochetes from infected humans, then
characterized them morphologically and biochemically and gave
them the name Borrelia burgdorferi.
In about 60% of the cases, a characteristic rash or lesion
called erythema migrans develops. It begins a few days to a few
weeks after the bite of an infected tick. The rash generally
looks like an expanding red ring with a clear center, but can
vary from a reddish blotchy appearance to red throughout. Some-
times there are two or more lesions. Unfortunately, in those
patients who never get a rash, the diagnosis can be difficult.
At about the same time that the rash develops, flu-like symptoms
may appear along with headache, stiff neck, fever, muscle aches
and general malaise.
The later complications of Lyme disease are quite severe. Most
common is arthritis, usually of the large joints (e.g., knees,
hips, shoulders). Other complications include meningitis and
other neurological problems such as numbness, tingling and
burning sensations in the extremities, severe pain, loss of
concentration, memory loss, confusion, loss of confidence,
withdrawal, depression, fatigue, (often extreme and
incapacitating), and Bell's palsy (loss of control of one side
of the face). Cardiac symptoms include heart palpitations and
irregular heart beat. Shortness of breath, dry mouth, voice
changes, and difficulty swallowing can occur. Eye symptoms
include conjuctivitis, double vision, and loss of vision. Remem-
ber, some patients do not get the rash and progress directly to
these later symptoms. Symptoms, including pain are intermittent
and changing, occurring in any combination and lasting from a
few days to several months and possibly years.
It is important to seek medical attention if any of these
symptoms appear, especially after being bitten by a tick or
visiting an area where Lyme disease is common. Timely treatment
with antibiotics (within a few days of symptoms appearing) will
increase chances of recovery and may lessen the severity of any
later symptoms. If ignored, the early symptoms may disappear,
but more serious problems can develop months to years later.
Chronic Lyme disease, because of its diverse symptoms, is par-
ticularly difficult to diagnose. Treatment for later stages is
more difficult and is often less successful, sometimes requiring
several months of intravenous antibiotic therapy.
In British Columbia Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in
juvenile ticks Ixodes angustus and adults of Ixodes pacificus
collected from Bowen Island, Cultus Lake, Galiano Island, Har-
rison, Hope, Lasqueti Island, Langley, Metchosin, Nanoose Bay,
Sechelt, and Squamish. According to Dr. Banerjee (pers. com-
munication) there are about 30 patients with Lyme disease in
British Columbia, 10 of them were most probably infected here in
Dr. Satyen N. Banerjee studies Lyme disease in British Columbia
and is interested in receiving LIVE ticks and he would like to
scan them for Borrelia spirochete. Ticks could be sent in a
small screw-top vial in which one should add a small ball of
cotton wetted in water. The address to send the ticks is:
Tick-borne Diseases Research Laboratory
Provincial Laboratory, B.C. Centre for Disease Control
828 West 10th Avenue
Vancouver, B.C. V5Z 1L8
MYOSURUS APETALUS = MYOSURUS ARISTATUS
From: Novon 4 (1994): 77-79.
In his article on "New names in North American Myosurus
(Ranunculaceae)," A.T. Whittemore is treating Myosurus aristatus
as conspecific with the Chilean species M. apetalus Gay. B.C.
plants belong to a new variety, M. apetalus var. borealis Whit-
temore characterized by 1-nerved sepals. Another variety, M.
apetalus var. montanus (G.R. Campbell) Whittemore (transferred
from M. minimus) occurs in Canada (Saskatchewan), and US (AZ,
MT, CO, NV, ND, OR, UT, WY) and has sepals 3(-5)-nerved.
CAREX SYLVATICA NATURALIZED ON PENDER ISLAND AND SATURNA ISLAND
From: A. & O. Ceska and Jan Kirkby
In the 1970's and 1980's Harvey Janszen made several collections
of a sedge which he identified as Carex sprengelii from Pender
and Saturna Islands (part of Gulf Islands, British Columbia).
T.M.C. Taylor, A. Ceska, and others confirmed Harvey's original
During a field trip of the Pender Island Naturalists on June 12,
1994, we revisited the locality of the sedge in the "Enchanted
Forest" on South Pender Island and realized that the sedge is
NOT Carex sprengelii, but naturalized European forest sedge,
Carex sylvatica. Consequent examination of the specimens in the
Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, B.C. [V] showed that
all the specimens of "Carex sprengelii" collected on Gulf Is-
lands belong in fact to Carex sylvatica.
Carex sylvatica Huds. is a European sedge of mesic alluvial
forests. In North America it is occasionally planted in gardens
as an ornamental "grass" and was reported naturalized on Long
Island, NY (Mackenzie, K.K. 1940. North American Cariceae, Vol.
II.). C. sylvatica is indeed very similar to C. sprengelii. C.
sylvatica is "aphyllopodic" - it has several short bracts at the
base of the plant, not fully developed leaves as "phyllopodic"
C. sprengelii. C. sprengelii has a rhizome with conspicuous
fibrous remnants of old leaves.
Two other collections of Carex sprengelii from British Columbia
in the Royal BC Museum (from Williams Lake and Prince George)
were correctly identified and are C. sprengelii.
Carex sylvatica is the second sedge recently found naturalized
in British Columbia. Several years ago Richard Martin found
Carex pallescens on Hornby Island. C. pallescens grows there in
open meadows, along the roads, and in ditches.
BIODIVERSITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA - OUR CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
Harding, L.E. & E. McCullum [eds.] 1994. Biodiversity in British
Columbia: Our changing environment. Environment Canada, Canadian
Wildlife Service, Ottawa. 426 p. ISBN 0-662-20671-1 [paperback]
Cost: CDN $29.95 Available from: Crown Publications Inc., 546
Yates Str., Victoria, B.C. V8W 1K8 (604) 386-4636 Fax.:(604)
This is a valuable collection of papers on various aspects of
biodiversity in British Columbia. Thirty chapters are grouped
into four sections: 1) Introducing biodiversity, 2) Species
diversity, 3) Ecosystem diversity , and 4) Prospects for the
future. Botanical topics are well covered and the book gives
good discussions on rare algae (M. Hawkes), fungi (S. Redhead),
lichens (T. Goward), bryophytes (W.B. Schofield), and vascular
plants (H. Roemer, G.B. Straley, and G.W. Douglas). Native rare
vascular plants species are listed, grouped by the status
categories established by the British Columbia Conservation Data
Centre. Exotic species of animals and plants are discussed as a
threat to biodiversity. (The list of introduced plants is unfor-
tunately restricted to "Introduced Flowers" - no grasses, sedges
or rushes - and even lists as introduced some species that are
on the Rare Native Vascular Plants List - e.g. Lupinus
densiflorus.) Chapters on Ecosystem diversity deal with forests
and grasslands, with urban ecosystems and (mostly marine)
ecosystems of the Strait of Georgia. British Columbia Ecological
Reserves are listed in the "Prospects for the future" together
with an outline of the B.C. Protected Areas Strategy etc.
More information about the Plantbio