BEN # 80

Adolf Ceska aceska at CUE.BC.CA
Mon Oct 24 12:20:52 EST 1994

BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             ISSN 1188-603X
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BBBBB    EEEEE    NN N N             BOTANICAL
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BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             NEWS

No. 80                               October 24, 1994

aceska at        Victoria, B.C.
 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2

From: Marilyn Light <009211 at>
   [compiled from <polpal-l at>]

Epipactis  helleborine  is  a European orchid that, since it was
first reported at Syracuse, New York  in  1879,  has  spread  to
appropriate  habitat  from coast to coast. This orchid was first
reported in Illinois by Julian Steyermark in 1954. More  details
may  be found in "An Introduction to the Ecology of the Illinois
Orchidaceae" by Charles Sheviak (Illinois State  Museum.  Scien-
tific  Papers  XIV,  1974).  Wasps  (Vespidae)  were reported as
pollinators of Epipactis helleborine in Europe by Darwin 1877 in
"The various contrivances by which  orchids  are  fertilized  by
insects."  William Judd reported four species of wasp feeding at
flowers of  E.  helleborine  in  "Wasps  (Vespidae)  pollinating
Helleborine,  Epipactis  helleborine  (L.) Crantz at Owen Sound,
Ontario" (Proceedings of the Entomological  Society  of  Ontario
(1971)  102:115-119).  The  species  were  Vespula  arenaria, V.
consobrina and V. vidua. He also observed  a  Polistes  fuscatus
worker feeding in the flowers.

I  study  native  orchids  including  their population dynamics,
inter- and intra-clonal reproductive  compatibility  and  mycor-
rhizal associations. I work primarily with Epipactis helleborine
and  Cypripedium  calceolus  var.  pubescens.  I  also have some
interest in the reproductive strategies of Platanthera psycodes.
Recent studies have  included  tracking  the  movement  of  pol-
linators  (Vespula  sp.)  by colouring the pollen with a dye and
looking for dyed pollen on the stigmas of other nearby  flowers.
I  have found that there is a higher incidence of visits between
flowers on the same inflorescence than between  plants.  Another
investigation  has employed ultra-violet reflectance photography
as a technique to determine whether or not  a  flower  has  been
pollinated.  Pollinated  stigmas  of  E. helleborine become par-
tially UV reflective within 15 minutes post-pollination, totally
UV absorptive within 30 minutes. Investigations of  pollen  ger-
minability  with  this  species  suggest  a good case for pollen

While I have never seen Polistes feeding in the flowers, I  have
observed  Vespula  visits.  The  orchid  flower has two pollinia
attached to a sticky projection (viscidium). These pollinia  are
fragile  sacs which fragment fairly readily after they are taken
from the flower. The wasp alights, bends forward to  lap  nectar
from  the  flower  lip, and while doing so brushes the viscidium
with the head. When the wasp backs out of the flower, it carries
the pollinia on its head. Wasps can collect quite a few pollinia
over time. Each time a pollen-carrying  wasp  visits  a  flower,
pollen  is  left on the stigma. Occasionally an entire pollinium
is deposited intact.

Wasps visit flowers repeatedly, whether or not the flowers  have
been  previously  visited/pollinated.  Visits  normally last 2-5
seconds although they can be considerably longer  if  the  wasps
get  'drunk' on the nectar. On August 9 I observed a wasp carry-
ing one pair of pollinia enter a virgin flower, leave  then  re-
enter  the  same flower a few seconds later. It then visited two
other previously pollinated flowers on the same stem.  The  same
wasp  then  moved  to  another  plant  25 cm distant and visited
Flowers 8,6,5,8,1,3,2, all of which  had  been  previously  pol-
linated.  It  then left the site. (Flowers are numbered from the
base of an upright inflorescence.)  This  inflorescence  had  42
buds/flowers,  11 of which were open. I had just self-pollinated
Flower 11 approximately five minutes  prior  to  the  pollinator
visit and had removed Flower 10 for photographic record.

I  have  observed  some anomalies which may be of interest. Most
orchids such as E. helleborine produce pollen in tetrads. I have
observed some plants producing monads interspersed  amongst  the
tetrads.  These  monads  are essentially giant undivided grains.
They do not germinate in vitro. Another plant  produced  tetrads
with  two  of the four elements shriveled. In this instance, all
the tetrads were similarly affected. Normal  elements  germinate
in  vitro.  Any  suggestions  as  to  what might be causing such
anomalies would be appreciated.

Marilyn Light
University of Ottawa Chairman, Conservation Committee,  Canadian
Orchid Congress

From: "Jo Bohanan" <jo_bohanan at>
(Natural Resources Library, North Carolina State University)

We  have  the  following  issues  of the journal Madrono (A West
American Journal of Botany published by the California Botanical
Society) available to anyone who would like to have them:
Jan. 1957-Jan. 1973.

If interested, please send e-mail to
jo_bohanan at

From: Mary Piper <piper at U.WASHINGTON.EDU>

The Department of Botany invites  applications  and  nominations
for  a tenure-track position at the assistant professor level in
systematics of higher plants.

The successful candidate  must  be  qualified  to  teach  under-
graduate  and  graduate  courses in plant systematics, develop a
rigorous     research     program     in     molecular     plant
systematics/phylogeny/evolution,  and  curate a major Herbarium.
There is extensive opportunity to develop collaborations  within
the  Department of Botany and with other units on campus as well
as the potential to attract  graduate  students  in  systematics
through departmental fellowships.

A  Ph.D.  in  Botany or a related area is required. Postdoctoral
experience is desirable. Candidates should exhibit potential for
independent and innovative research and teaching, and a willing-
ness to cooperate with a broad spectrum of biologists on campus.

Salary: Commensurate with education and experience.

Position available: September 16, 1995 but may  be  extended  if
suitable candidates are not found.

To  apply: Send a letter of application with a statement of your
teaching and research experience and interests, curriculum vitae
and a list of publications (up to three  reprints  may  also  be
sent),  and  arrange  to  have  three  letters of recommendation
forwarded to: Dr. E. Van Volkenburgh,  Chair  Search  Committee,
Department  of  Botany,  KB-15, University of Washington, KB-15,
Seattle, WA 98195.

Phone:  206-543-1942,  FAX  206-685-1728,  e-mail  Mary   Piper,
piper at

Priority  will  be given to applications received by 30 November

The University of Washington is building  a  culturally  diverse
faculty  and  strongly  encourages  applications  from women and
minority candidates.


Goward, Trevor, Bruce McCune, & Del Meidinger. 1994. THE LICHENS
SQUAMULOSE  SPECIES.  Special Report Series No. 8, B.C. Ministry
of Forests, Victoria,  B.C.  181  p.  ISBN  0-7726-2194-2  [soft
Available  from  Crown  Publications Inc., 521 Fort Street, Vic-
toria, B.C. V8W 1E7, Phone: (604) 386-4636, Fax: (604) 386-0221,
Price: CDN$ 32.00

Hurd, Emerenciana G., Goodrich, Sherel, & Nancy L.  Shaw.  1994.
Ogden UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Inter-
mountain Research Station. 56 p.
Abstract. This  guide  provides  technical  descriptions  of  23
Intermountain  rushes  (Juncus  spp.),  including the common and
several less abundant species. Line drawings and color or  black
and  white  photos illustrate diagnostic characteristics of each
species. An illustrated morphology and a glossary  acquaint  the
layperson  with  the  terminology  used  to classify rushes. The
guide is intended as a tool to aid in classification; it is  not

Greuter,  W.,  J.  McNeill,  et  al. 1994. INTERNATIONAL CODE OF
BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE (TOKYO CODE) 1994. Adopted  by  the  Fif-
teenth   International  Botanical  Congress,  Yokohama,  August-
September 1993. Regnum Vegetabile Vol.  131.  Koeltz  Scientific
Books, Koenigstein. 389 p.
Available from: Koeltz Scientific Books, P.O. Box 13 60, D-61453
Koenigstein,   Germany.  Phone:  (+49)  0617493720,  Fax:  (+49)
06174937240, Price DM 60.00

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