BEN # 78
aceska at CUE.BC.CA
Fri Sep 2 16:26:12 EST 1994
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No. 78 September 2, 1994
aceska at freenet.victoria.bc.ca Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE (LYTHRUM SALICARIA)
BRITISH COLUMBIA UPDATE - AUGUST, 1994
From: Roy Cranston <RCRANSTON at GALAXY.GOV.BC.CA>
In 1991, following rigorous host specificity testing, North
American federal governments approved the introduction of
natural agents to attack purple loosestrife. The three agents
approved for release in Canada are a root-feeding beetle
(Hylobius transversovittatus) and two leaf-feeding beetles
(Galerucella calamariensis and Galerucella pusilla).
The initial B.C. release of G. calamariensis took place in June,
1993 at the Canadian Wildlife Service property on Westham Is-
land. Subsequent releases were made to Jericho Park in Van-
couver, Burnaby Lake, the Vedder wetlands at Chilliwack, Cheam
Lake and at the Okanagan Drainage Canal at Penticton. Monitoring
has proven successful establishment at most locations evidenced
by presence of adults, larvae, eggs and feeding damage on the
Releases of G. calamariensis continued this spring with intro-
ductions to the Fraser River shoreline in east Richmond, Bound-
ary Bay, Penticton and Kootenay Lake. The second leaf-feeding
agent, Galerucella pusilla was introduced to Campbell River and
the Kelowna area in June. The Hylobius root beetle was released
to Iona Beach Regional Park in Richmond in July. All bioagents
have been supplied from propagation facilities managed by
Agriculture Canada at Lethbridge, Alberta. Agencies currently
involved in releasing loosestrife bioagents include the Minis-
tries of Agriculture, Forests and Environment, U.B.C., City of
Burnaby, Okanagan-Similkameen, Greater Vancouver and Fraser-
Cheam Regional Districts and the Chilliwack, North Cowichan and
Okanagan Naturalist Clubs.
Monitoring to determine survival and impact of all agents will
occur over the next several years. The purpose for these initial
introductions is to establish large colonies of insects that can
be used for collection sites for eventual redistribution
throughout the B.C. range of purple loosestrife.
In its native European habitat, purple loosestrife is rapidly
controlled by natural insect agents. Once the insects ac-
climatize and begin reproducing, there is a high probability for
successful reduction of British Columbia's increasing purple
Provincial Weed Specialist
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
FLORA NORTH AMERICA GOPHER & WORLD WIDE WEB
From: Flora of North America Newsletter 8(3):21. [abbrev.]
Many useful Flora of North America files are now available on
the Missouri Botanical Garden gopher (gopher.mobot.org). In
addition to all taxonomic information from Volume 2, and several
sample illustration images, chapters from Volume 1 have been put
up and can be searched for words or word strings.
The gopher files are also available via the World Wide Web (WWW)
server. The URL (Universal Record Locator) for the Missouri
Botanical Garden WWW home page is:
BOOK REVIEW: INTERMOUNTAIN FLORA VOLUME 5 - ASTERALES
From: R.T. Ogilvie, Royal B.C. Museum, Victoria, B.C.
<bogilvie at galaxy.gov.bc.ca>
The newest volume of the Intermountain Flora, the Asteraceae,
has just come out in July this year. The author, of course, is
Arthur Cronquist, the high-priest of the Asteraceae in North
America. In one sense this book is a memorial volume to Arthur
Cronquist since he died in March 1992 while he was making the
finishing touches to this manuscript. But since then a lot of
editing and other work has taken place to bring this volume into
The Intermountain Flora is very relevant to botanists in British
Columbia. Often one can gain a better understanding of a local
species from its features and behaviour in other parts of its
geographic range. We are at the northern extremity of both the
Pacific Northwest region and also the Intermountain region. The
Intermountain region is the arid area lying between the Rocky
Mountains and the Cascade-Sierra Nevada Mountains, and with
vegetation largely dominated by sagebrush and chenopods such as
shadscale, greasewood, and winterfat. Although the northern
boundary of coverage of the Flora runs along southeastern Oregon
and southern Idaho, members of this arid flora extend well into
the dry interior of British Columbia along the southern
Similkameen, Okanagan, Thompson, Kettle, and Kootenay Valleys.
The Intermountain region is the centre of species diversity for
several genera and families, for example: Astragalus has 156
species, Penstemon has 104 species, Phacelia with 50 species,
Eriogonum with ca. 70 species, and Gilia with 33 species. The
Asteraceae is the largest family, with 130 genera; Artemisia has
27 species, Chrysothamnus has 17 species, Haplopappus 35
species, Erigeron 71 species, and Townsendia with 15 species.
The book is not arranged alphabetically by genus and species as
in the Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. The Aster
Family is divided into seven Tribes, and within each Tribe the
genera are grouped into Subtribes, and the species are ordered
within the genera by morphological similarity. This makes sense
morphologically and taxonomically; plants like Tragopogon,
Sonchus, Hieracium, Crepis, and Taraxacum are found together
rather than being separated by the alphabet. But if you don't
know that these plants are closely related and are in the Tribe
Lactuceae, then they may be hard to find in the book. There is a
key to the Tribes, and within each Tribe there are keys to
Subtribes and genera; there is also an artificial key to go
directly to genus. The index is essential if one wants to find,
for example, Artemisia to key out a specimen, or if one wants to
go to Artemisia cana to find its distribution range.
Cronquist's taxonomic concepts will be familiar to users of
Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. His genera are broad
and conventional and so are his species. In general there are
few changes from his 1955 treatment in Volume 5 of Vascular
Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Chrysopsis villosa is main-
tained separate from Heterotheca, and Chrysanthemum leucanthemum
is maintained for oxeye-daisy instead of splitting it off into
the perennial Leucanthemum. But Solidago is segregated into
Euthamia (for E. graminifolia, E. occidentalis). Aster is
segregated into Machaeranthera (for M. canescens), but other
Aster-segregate genera are not used, such as Lasallea falcata or
Virgulus for the pansus-ericoides-campestris complex.
The variety rank is used for morphological variation within
species correlated with different habitats or different
geographic ranges. For example, Chrysothamnus nauseosus has 20
regional or ecological varieties. Cronquist occasionally uses
both subspecies and varieties to deal with the pattern of
variability in complex species. For the common subalpine-daisy -
Erigeron peregrinus, the Intermountain populations are sub-
species callianthemus consisting of variety callianthemus, var.
scaposus, var. angustifolius (the Coastal populations are sub-
species peregrinus, consisting of variety peregrinus, var.
thompsonii, var. dawsonii). A similar infraspecific hierarchy is
used for the pattern of variation in Artemisia ludoviciana: the
northern populations are subspecies ludoviciana, consisting of
variety ludoviciana, var. latiloba, var. incompta; the southern
populations are subspecies mexicana variety mexicana, var.
albula (and 2 other varieties further south).
Some patterns of species variation, especially those involving
apomixis and polyploid complexes, are not given taxonomic recog-
nition. This is the situation in several species-complexes in
Antennaria and also Taraxacum. According to Cronquist there are
only 2 native species of Taraxacum in the Intermountain Region
and the Pacific Northwest (T. ceratophorum, T. lyratum); all
other native species reported for these areas are reduced to
synonyms under these two species. Populations with other dif-
ferences in achene morphology, involucre bracts, and leaf-lobing
are not recognised. As a consequence much taxonomic and
phytogeographic information is lost by reducing all this diver-
sity to 2 species. There has been recent detailed research on
the circumpolar and northern European Taraxaca, in which the
multitude of apomictic and polyploid microspecies are combined
into a manageable number of related Species Groups, and these in
turn are grouped into a small number of Sections. This approach
has been successfully applied to the arctic and polar Taraxaca
of North America; it should be used in the cordilleran and
The printing quality of the Intermountain Flora is very high
standard, as is true for all of the New York Botanical Garden
publications. The Asterales book is big, 500 pages. Several
botanical artists prepared the plant illustrations: John Rumely
who did all of the illustrations for the Asteraceae of the Vol.
5 of Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, and all of the
new illustrations were drawn by Bobbi Angell, Anthony Salazar
and Robin Jess. The art work is very fine, but the printing
quality of some of the new illustrations is disappointing: some
of the fine details of the bracts, achenes and pappus are lost
through fading or blurring. A lot of additional work went into
bringing Cronquist's manuscript into print: besides the three
additional artists, Noel H. Holmgren and Patricia K. Holmgren
added 48 new synonyms and a list of 20 new taxa, and a lot of
editorial work was done by a number of botanists.
This big, handsome book on the Compositae is an appropriate
memorial to Arthur Cronquist; it will be used by botanists for
years to come.
The following is the information for the published parts of the
Volume 1: Geological and botanical History, Plant Geography,
Vascular Cryptogams, gymnosperms, Glossary. By A. Cronquist,
A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, and J.L. Reveal. 1972. 270 pages.
Volume 3, Part B: Fabales. By R.C. Barneby. 1989. 292 pages.
Volume 4: The Asteridae Except the Asterales (Gentianales,
Solanales, Lamiales, Callitrichales, Plantaginales,
Scrophulariales, Campanulales, Rubiales, Dipsacales). By A.
Cronquist, A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K.
Holmgren. 1984. 573 pages. $75.00.
Volume 5: Asterales. By A. Cronquist. 1994. 506 pages. $75.00.
Volume 6: The Monocotyledons. By A. Cronquist, A.H. Holmgren,
N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1977. 584 pages.
Published by: the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.
10458-5126. [A 25% discount is given when ordering all 5 pub-
lished volumes of the flora: $210.00].
The parts of the flora remaining to be published are:
Volume 2: The Magnoliidae, Hamamelidae, Caryophyllidae, and
Dilleniidae. Key to the families of dicotyledons, and Comprehen-
sive Index for the six volumes.
Volume 3, Part A: The Rosidae.
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