BEN # 78

Adolf Ceska aceska at CUE.BC.CA
Fri Sep 2 16:26:12 EST 1994


BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             ISSN 1188-603X
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BBBBB    EEEEE    NN N N             BOTANICAL
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BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             NEWS

No. 78                               September 2, 1994

aceska at freenet.victoria.bc.ca        Victoria, B.C.
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 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
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BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE (LYTHRUM SALICARIA)
BRITISH COLUMBIA UPDATE - AUGUST, 1994
From: Roy Cranston <RCRANSTON at GALAXY.GOV.BC.CA>

In  1991,  following  rigorous  host  specificity testing, North
American  federal  governments  approved  the  introduction   of
natural  agents  to  attack purple loosestrife. The three agents
approved  for  release  in  Canada  are  a  root-feeding  beetle
(Hylobius   transversovittatus)  and  two  leaf-feeding  beetles
(Galerucella calamariensis and Galerucella pusilla).

The initial B.C. release of G. calamariensis took place in June,
1993 at the Canadian Wildlife Service property  on  Westham  Is-
land.  Subsequent  releases  were  made  to Jericho Park in Van-
couver, Burnaby Lake, the Vedder wetlands at  Chilliwack,  Cheam
Lake and at the Okanagan Drainage Canal at Penticton. Monitoring
has  proven successful establishment at most locations evidenced
by presence of adults, larvae, eggs and feeding  damage  on  the
leaves.

Releases  of  G. calamariensis continued this spring with intro-
ductions to the Fraser River shoreline in east Richmond,  Bound-
ary  Bay,  Penticton  and Kootenay Lake. The second leaf-feeding
agent, Galerucella pusilla was introduced to Campbell River  and
the  Kelowna area in June. The Hylobius root beetle was released
to Iona Beach Regional Park in Richmond in July.  All  bioagents
have  been  supplied  from  propagation  facilities  managed  by
Agriculture Canada at Lethbridge,  Alberta.  Agencies  currently
involved  in  releasing loosestrife bioagents include the Minis-
tries of Agriculture, Forests and Environment, U.B.C.,  City  of
Burnaby,  Okanagan-Similkameen,  Greater  Vancouver  and Fraser-
Cheam Regional Districts and the Chilliwack, North Cowichan  and
Okanagan Naturalist Clubs.

Monitoring  to  determine survival and impact of all agents will
occur over the next several years. The purpose for these initial
introductions is to establish large colonies of insects that can
be  used  for  collection  sites  for  eventual   redistribution
throughout the B.C. range of purple loosestrife.

In  its  native  European habitat, purple loosestrife is rapidly
controlled by  natural  insect  agents.  Once  the  insects  ac-
climatize and begin reproducing, there is a high probability for
successful  reduction  of  British  Columbia's increasing purple
loosestrife populations.

Roy Cranston
Provincial Weed Specialist
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food


FLORA NORTH AMERICA GOPHER & WORLD WIDE WEB
From: Flora of North America Newsletter 8(3):21. [abbrev.]

Many useful Flora of North America files are  now  available  on
the  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  gopher  (gopher.mobot.org). In
addition to all taxonomic information from Volume 2, and several
sample illustration images, chapters from Volume 1 have been put
up and can be searched for words or word strings.

The gopher files are also available via the World Wide Web (WWW)
server. The URL (Universal  Record  Locator)  for  the  Missouri
Botanical Garden WWW home page is:

http://straylight.tamu edu/MoBot/welcome.html


BOOK REVIEW: INTERMOUNTAIN FLORA VOLUME 5 - ASTERALES
From: R.T. Ogilvie, Royal B.C. Museum, Victoria, B.C.
      <bogilvie at galaxy.gov.bc.ca>

The  newest  volume  of the Intermountain Flora, the Asteraceae,
has just come out in July this year. The author, of  course,  is
Arthur  Cronquist,  the  high-priest  of the Asteraceae in North
America. In one sense this book is a memorial volume  to  Arthur
Cronquist  since  he  died in March 1992 while he was making the
finishing touches to this manuscript. But since then  a  lot  of
editing and other work has taken place to bring this volume into
print.

The Intermountain Flora is very relevant to botanists in British
Columbia.  Often  one can gain a better understanding of a local
species from its features and behaviour in other  parts  of  its
geographic  range.  We are at the northern extremity of both the
Pacific Northwest region and also the Intermountain region.  The
Intermountain  region  is  the arid area lying between the Rocky
Mountains and the  Cascade-Sierra  Nevada  Mountains,  and  with
vegetation  largely dominated by sagebrush and chenopods such as
shadscale, greasewood,  and  winterfat.  Although  the  northern
boundary of coverage of the Flora runs along southeastern Oregon
and  southern Idaho, members of this arid flora extend well into
the  dry  interior  of  British  Columbia  along  the   southern
Similkameen, Okanagan, Thompson, Kettle, and Kootenay Valleys.

The  Intermountain region is the centre of species diversity for
several genera and families, for  example:  Astragalus  has  156
species,  Penstemon  has  104 species, Phacelia with 50 species,
Eriogonum with ca. 70 species, and Gilia with  33  species.  The
Asteraceae is the largest family, with 130 genera; Artemisia has
27   species,  Chrysothamnus  has  17  species,  Haplopappus  35
species, Erigeron 71 species, and Townsendia with 15 species.

The book is not arranged alphabetically by genus and species  as
in  the  Vascular  Plants  of  the  Pacific Northwest. The Aster
Family is divided into seven Tribes, and within each  Tribe  the
genera  are  grouped into Subtribes, and the species are ordered
within the genera by morphological similarity. This makes  sense
morphologically   and  taxonomically;  plants  like  Tragopogon,
Sonchus, Hieracium, Crepis, and  Taraxacum  are  found  together
rather  than  being  separated by the alphabet. But if you don't
know that these plants are closely related and are in the  Tribe
Lactuceae, then they may be hard to find in the book. There is a
key  to  the  Tribes,  and  within  each Tribe there are keys to
Subtribes and genera; there is also  an  artificial  key  to  go
directly  to genus. The index is essential if one wants to find,
for example, Artemisia to key out a specimen, or if one wants to
go to Artemisia cana to find its distribution range.

Cronquist's taxonomic concepts will  be  familiar  to  users  of
Vascular  Plants  of the Pacific Northwest. His genera are broad
and conventional and so are his species. In  general  there  are
few  changes  from  his  1955  treatment in Volume 5 of Vascular
Plants of the Pacific Northwest.  Chrysopsis  villosa  is  main-
tained separate from Heterotheca, and Chrysanthemum leucanthemum
is  maintained  for oxeye-daisy instead of splitting it off into
the perennial Leucanthemum.  But  Solidago  is  segregated  into
Euthamia  (for  E.  graminifolia,  E.  occidentalis).  Aster  is
segregated into Machaeranthera (for  M.  canescens),  but  other
Aster-segregate genera are not used, such as Lasallea falcata or
Virgulus for the pansus-ericoides-campestris complex.

The  variety  rank  is  used  for morphological variation within
species  correlated  with  different   habitats   or   different
geographic  ranges.  For example, Chrysothamnus nauseosus has 20
regional or ecological varieties.  Cronquist  occasionally  uses
both  subspecies  and  varieties  to  deal  with  the pattern of
variability in complex species. For the common subalpine-daisy -
Erigeron peregrinus,  the  Intermountain  populations  are  sub-
species  callianthemus consisting of variety callianthemus, var.
scaposus, var. angustifolius (the Coastal populations  are  sub-
species  peregrinus,  consisting  of  variety  peregrinus,  var.
thompsonii, var. dawsonii). A similar infraspecific hierarchy is
used for the pattern of variation in Artemisia ludoviciana:  the
northern  populations  are subspecies ludoviciana, consisting of
variety ludoviciana, var. latiloba, var. incompta; the  southern
populations  are  subspecies  mexicana  variety  mexicana,  var.
albula (and 2 other varieties further south).

Some patterns of species variation, especially  those  involving
apomixis and polyploid complexes, are not given taxonomic recog-
nition.  This  is  the situation in several species-complexes in
Antennaria and also Taraxacum. According to Cronquist there  are
only  2  native species of Taraxacum in the Intermountain Region
and the Pacific Northwest (T.  ceratophorum,  T.  lyratum);  all
other  native  species  reported  for these areas are reduced to
synonyms under these two species. Populations  with  other  dif-
ferences in achene morphology, involucre bracts, and leaf-lobing
are   not  recognised.  As  a  consequence  much  taxonomic  and
phytogeographic information is lost by reducing all this  diver-
sity  to  2  species. There has been recent detailed research on
the circumpolar and northern European  Taraxaca,  in  which  the
multitude  of  apomictic and polyploid microspecies are combined
into a manageable number of related Species Groups, and these in
turn are grouped into a small number of Sections. This  approach
has  been  successfully applied to the arctic and polar Taraxaca
of North America; it should  be  used  in  the  cordilleran  and
intermountain floras.

The  printing  quality  of  the Intermountain Flora is very high
standard, as is true for all of the New  York  Botanical  Garden
publications.  The  Asterales  book  is  big, 500 pages. Several
botanical artists prepared the plant illustrations: John  Rumely
who  did all of the illustrations for the Asteraceae of the Vol.
5 of Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, and  all  of  the
new  illustrations  were  drawn by Bobbi Angell, Anthony Salazar
and Robin Jess. The art work is  very  fine,  but  the  printing
quality  of some of the new illustrations is disappointing: some
of the fine details of the bracts, achenes and pappus  are  lost
through  fading  or blurring. A lot of additional work went into
bringing Cronquist's manuscript into print:  besides  the  three
additional  artists,  Noel  H. Holmgren and Patricia K. Holmgren
added 48 new synonyms and a list of 20 new taxa, and  a  lot  of
editorial work was done by a number of botanists.

This  big,  handsome  book  on  the Compositae is an appropriate
memorial to Arthur Cronquist; it will be used by  botanists  for
years to come.

The  following is the information for the published parts of the
Intermountain Flora:

Volume 1: Geological and  botanical  History,  Plant  Geography,
Vascular  Cryptogams,  gymnosperms,  Glossary.  By A. Cronquist,
A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, and J.L. Reveal. 1972. 270  pages.
$32.00.

Volume  3,  Part  B:  Fabales. By R.C. Barneby. 1989. 292 pages.
$58.00.

Volume 4:  The  Asteridae  Except  the  Asterales  (Gentianales,
Solanales,      Lamiales,     Callitrichales,     Plantaginales,
Scrophulariales,  Campanulales,  Rubiales,  Dipsacales).  By  A.
Cronquist,  A.H.  Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K.
Holmgren. 1984. 573 pages. $75.00.

Volume 5: Asterales. By A. Cronquist. 1994. 506 pages. $75.00.

Volume 6: The Monocotyledons. By A.  Cronquist,  A.H.  Holmgren,
N.H.  Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1977. 584 pages.
$40.00.

Published by: the New York Botanical Garden,  Bronx,  New  York.
10458-5126.  [A  25%  discount is given when ordering all 5 pub-
lished volumes of the flora: $210.00].

The parts of the flora remaining to be published are:
Volume 2:  The  Magnoliidae,  Hamamelidae,  Caryophyllidae,  and
Dilleniidae. Key to the families of dicotyledons, and Comprehen-
sive Index for the six volumes.
Volume 3, Part A: The Rosidae.



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