BEN # 173

Adolf Ceska aceska at CUE.BC.CA
Wed Oct 8 02:40:27 EST 1997


                                                   
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BBBBB    EEEEE    NN N N             BOTANICAL
BB   B   EE       NN  NN             ELECTRONIC
BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             NEWS

No. 173                              October 8, 1997

aceska at freenet.victoria.bc.ca        Victoria, B.C.
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 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
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MYCOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL EVENTS IN VICTORIA

October  11  and  12,  1997  -  SVIMS  (South  Vancouver  Island
     Mycological Society): Fall Foray to Tofino. We will meet at
     8:30 a.m. Saturday and Sunday, Oct. 11 and 12 at the  Rain-
     forest Interpretive Centre, Main St. Tofino.

October 21, 1997 - Botany Night. Dr. Sergei Yazvenko: "Plants of
     Greece"  - Swan Lake Nature House, Victoria, B.C. 7:30 p.m.
     (Botany Night is sponsored by the Victoria Natural  History
     Society and Native Plant Society of British Columbia.)

October  26, 1997 - SVIMS Mushroom Show. Swan Lake Nature House,
     10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.


PROFESSOR NANCY J. TURNER RECEIVED 1997 R. E. SCHULTES AWARD
From: Sarah Mason <sarah.mason at ucl.ac.uk>

Professor Nancy J. Turner of the School of Environmental Studies
at the University of Victoria, BC, is the recipient of the  1997
Richard  Evans  Schultes  Award. The Schultes Award is presented
annually by The  Healing  Forest  Conservancy  to  a  scientist,
practitioner,  or  organization  that  has  made  an outstanding
contribution to ethnobotany  or  to  indigenous  peoples  issues
related  to  ethnobotany.  "Advocate  for  indigenous  peoples,"
"accomplished academic," "inspiring professor," read  the  flood
of  nominations  for Nancy Turner. Specific recognition is given
for her leadership in partnering with First Nations  peoples  to
bring  ethnobotanical  knowledge to the forefront in discussions
on management of the ancient, temperate forests of  the  Pacific
Northwest  with  the  government  of Canada. Turner's impressive
scholarly recognition by her  peers  on  the  temperate  climate
ethnobotany  of  the First Nations in British Columbia -- almost
30 books, monographs or chapters -- is  surpassed  only  by  the
number  of  her  many  devoted students whom she has inspired to
enter the field of ethnobotany.

The award honors the name of Richard Evans Schultes, the Harvard
ethnobotanist widely recognized as one of the most distinguished
figures in the field. For his work, Schultes received the annual
Gold Medal of the World  Wildlife  Fund,  the  Tyler  Prize  for
Environmental  Achievement  and the Linnean Gold Medal. Schultes
has published over 400 technical papers and nine books,  includ-
ing,  with Robert Raffauf, The Healing Forest (1990) and Vine of
the Soul (1992). The Healing Forest Conservancy is  named  after
their 1990 book.

The  International Nominating Committee for the award is chaired
by Michael J. Balick, Ph.D.,  Philecology  Curator  of  Economic
Botany and Director of The New York Botanical Garden's Institute
of Economic Botany. The award was announced in St. Louis, MO, at
the  annual meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, of which
Schultes is a founding member.

To date, there have been four other recipients of  the  Schultes
Award.  The  late  Calvin  R.  Sperling,  Ph.D., of the National
Germplasm Resources Laboratory at the US Department of  Agricul-
ture  was  recognized  in  1993  for his comprehensive work as a
field ethnobotanist in the preservation of genetic resources and
the ethnobotany of economic plants. The 1994 Schultes Award  was
presented  to  Professor  Hernando Garcia Barriga of the Univer-
sidad de Colombia in recognition of  his  contributions  to  the
field,  including  the  publication  of  his three volume series
Flora Medicinal de Colombia. The series is widely considered the
definitive work on ethnobotany in Colombia. The  Schultes  Award
for  1995  was presented to Janis B. Alcorn, Ph.D., Director for
Asia and the Pacific for the Biodiversity Support Program at the
World Wildlife Fund in Washington, DC. The award recognizes  her
outstanding  contribution  of  strengthening indigenous peoples'
participation  in  community-based  conservation  of  biological
diversity.  For  the 1996 Schultes Award, the Bribri and Cabecar
people of the KekoeLdi Indian Reserve in Costa Rica were  recog-
nized  for their strategy to maintain their culture by enforcing
their territorial rights -- publishing a book about  the  Bribri
and  Cabecar  use  of medicinal plants and using book profits to
purchase lands from non-Indian landholders within the boundaries
of their reserve.

Each Schultes Award has featured a $5,000.00 cash prize  donated
by Shaman Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and The Leland Fikes Foundation,
Inc.  The Foundation, located in Dallas, supports local biomedi-
cal research and has a general interest  in  biodiversity  as  a
part  of the broad field of medicine. The Healing Forest Conser-
vancy, which sponsors the Schultes Award, was founded by  Shaman
Pharmaceuticals, Inc., based in South San Francisco, California,
and  focused on the discovery and development of pharmaceuticals
through ethnobotany. The Conservancy, a  non-profit  foundation,
is  dedicated  to  the  conservation  of  tropical forests, par-
ticularly medicinal plants and their sustainable use  for  human
health.  Its  focus  is  to  deliver  compensation programs that
strengthen the  integrity  of  traditional  cultures  to  native
communities  that  have  participated in Shaman's drug discovery
process.

Nominations for the 1998 Richard Evans Schultes Award  are  open
until  May  1,  1998.  The  award  seeks a balance in geographic
location, gender and field of study for recipients.  Nominations
of  indigenous  people  or organizations active in this area are
especially welcome. Please submit nominations (of others, it  is
not  self-nominating), along with a statement of the candidate's
qualifications to:

   Katy Moran, Director, The Healing Forest Conservancy
   3521 S Street,  N.W.
   Washington,  D.C. 20007 -  U.S.A.
   202-333-3438 Fax - <MoranHFC at aol.com>


COLLECTING WILD PLANTS - TO DIG OR NOT TO DIG
From: Lorna Allen, Alberta Natural Heritage  Information  Centre
   <lallen at env.gov.ab.ca>

Did  you  know  that  roughly  25%  of  Alberta's vascular plant
species are considered rare in the province? One quarter of  our
plant  species  rare? This seems excessive, but look at the per-
centages in other jurisdictions: 22% of vascular plants  in  the
United  States  are considered to be "of concern"(Falk 1992) and
further, nearly 25% of the  estimated  250,000  species  in  the
world  may  be  endangered (Schemske et al. 1994). The reasons a
plant is rare vary, some may have never been numerous - they may
have very specialized habitat requirements.

For over 100 of these species, the main cause of  their  decline
is  over-collecting  in the wild. Of these, many are cactus and,
yes,  orchids.  The  Knowlton  pincushion  cactus   (Peciocactus
knowltonii), for example is known from only two populations. Its
numbers  have  been  reduced,  primarily  by collectors, from an
estimated 100,000 in 1960 to perhaps fewer  than  1,000  in  the
1970's  (Stafford  1989).  A recent study of causes of rarity in
the United States found that up to 20% of the species considered
rare due to collecting.

So the collecting of wild plants is a documented  problem  else-
where,  is  it a problem in Alberta? We do not have any compara-
tive studies, but let's look at some populations. Yellow lady's-
slipper is not considered rare in Alberta. But certainly popula-
tions have been lost, and not just to projects like the  upgrad-
ing  of highway 22 near Olds. I remember a couple of populations
of yellow lady's-slipper in the White Mud  ravine  in  Edmonton.
What  happened  to  those plants? Certainly at least in part the
habitat has changed, with  trees  closing  in  on  some  of  the
meadows,  making  them  less  suitable  habitat  for the lady's-
slipper. But I also remember seeing people picking them. And the
population is gone. Is there a problem in Alberta?

Working with Natural Heritage Protection & Education, this is  a
question  we  have  been  asked numerous times. And we have con-
cluded that plants SHOULD NOT  be  removed  from  their  natural
habitat  due to the disturbance that results to the habitat that
the plant was removed from the long term potential loss of  that
plant  species  from the site, which may, in turn, result in the
loss of other species that may rely on that plant.

Native species should not be collected from the wild.  If  there
is a species which a gardener wishes to propagate they should:

   take cuttings, or
   collect seeds and grow from seedlings.

Only  a small percentage of the seeds should be removed from any
one area so that the area is not unduly affected. It  is  impor-
tant  to  maintain  functioning population in a natural setting,
not just for the species of concern, but for the myriad of other
species that may rely upon it.

Unfortunately, none of these strategies are likely to  work  for
orchids,  but,  and this may be controversial, I feel that it is
more important to maintain the integrity of our natural habitats
than to grow native species in gardens.  Generally,  any  native
species  grown in a garden should be from cuttings or seeds, not
from plants removed from the wild. The one possible exception is
if the bulldozers are moving in and the population doomed.  Even
then  there  are  some  things  to  consider.  Especially if the
population to be "rescued" is along a roadside, there may  be  a
number  of  noxious  weeds  and  soil  contaminants that you are
moving along with the desired plants.

So, to answer the question of whether to collect the species  in
the  wild  - don't do it! Even when buying native species from a
nursery, the buyer should ensure that those plants have not been
removed from the wild. This is one small part you  can  play  in
helping  to maintain our natural habitats and the diversity that
they encompass.

References Cited

Falk, D.A.  1992.  From  conservation  biology  to  conservation
   practice:  strategies  for  protecting plant diversity. Pages
   397-431 in P.L. Fieldler and S. K. Jain,  editors.  Conserva-
   tion biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation,
   preservation  and  management.  Chapman & Hall, Hew York, New
   York, USA.
Schemske, D. W., B. C. Husband,  M.  H.  Ruckelshaus.  C.  Good-
   willie,  I.  M.  Parker  and  J.  G. Bishop. 1994. Evaluating
   approaches to the conservation of rare and endangered plants.
   Ecology 75: 584-606.
Stafford, R. 1989. Botanists find cactus  better  neighbourhood.
   The Centre for Plant Conservation. Vol 4 No 1.


CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF NATIVE PLANTS AND FUNGI
From: Thomas N. Kaye <kayet at ava.bcc.orst.edu>

Now available from the Native Plant Society of Oregon:

Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi: Proceed-
   ings  of an Oregon Conference on the Conservation and Manage-
   ment of Native Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Fungi.

   Edited by: Thomas N.  Kaye,  Aaron  Liston,  Rhoda  M.  Love,
   Daniel L. Luoma, Robert J. Meinke, and Mark V. Wilson. With a
   foreword  by  Reed  F.  Noss, Oregon State University. Native
   Plant Society of Oregon.
   
   296 pages; 113 illustrations, 11 black and white  plates,  51
   tables,  6  appendices.  Price: $20 plus $5 shipping and han-
   dling ($2.50 shipping for each additional copy).  Soft  cover
   only. ISBN 0-9656852-0-9

The management of native plants faces many challenges today, and
the  attention of many conservationists has recently expanded to
include bryophytes, lichens and fungi. This book addresses  this
subject  through  the perspective of professional land managers,
conservationists, and academic scientists from Oregon and neigh-
boring states. Forty papers comprise the volume, which is broken
into four themes representing conservation,  restoration,  ecol-
ogy,  and systematics. The book is the first of its kind for the
conservation community in the Pacific Northwest; it is based  on
a symposium held 15-17 November 1995 on the Oregon State Univer-
sity  campus.  Although  most  papers have a regional focus, the
book is pertinent to  all  students  and  professionals  in  the
fields of botany and conservation biology.

For  more  information  and abstracts of all papers in the book,
visit our web site at:

http://www.teleport.com/nonprofit/npso/confproc.shtml

To order, send check or money order to:

   NPSO Conference Proceedings
   804 Jefferson Avenue
   La Grande, Oregon  97850

Make check payable to: Native Plant Society of Oregon

All proceeds from the sale of this book go toward the  conserva-
tion  and  education  programs  of  the  Native Plant Society of
Oregon.


INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE (TOKYO) ON-LINE
From: "W. Berendsohn" <wgb at zedat.fu-berlin.de> originally posted
   on TAXACOM <taxacom at cmsa.berkeley.edu>

The  International  Association  for  Plant  Taxonomy  announces
availability  of  the  English text of the International Code of
Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo Code) on the WWW:

http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/iapt/nomenclature/code/tokyo-e/

The appendices are currently being converted and  will  be  pub-
lished as they become available.

We  would  appreciate  any  information on errors which may have
been introduced in the conversion process.

   W. Berendsohn & B. Zimmer

   Dr. Walter G. Berendsohn, Freie Universitaet Berlin,
   Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem,
   Koenigin-Luise-Str. 6-8, 14191 Berlin, Germany
   Tel: +49 30 83006-143, Fax: +49 30 841729-43

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