BEN # 243
aceska at victoria.tc.ca
Wed Mar 15 02:49:27 EST 2000
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No. 243 March 14, 2000
aceska at victoria.tc.ca Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
NOTES ON THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND TAXONOMY OF _LUPINUS
SULPHUREUS_ SSP. _KINCAIDII_ (FABACEAE): WATCH FOR IT IN YOUR
From: Tom Kaye <kayet at ava.bcc.orst.edu>
_Lupinus sulphureus_ ssp. _kincaidii_ was recently listed by the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a threatened species. This
rare lupine is a host plant of the Fender's blue butterfly
(_Icaricia icarioides fenderi_), an endangered Willamette Val-
ley, Oregon, endemic. Most published descriptions of the lupine
indicate its geographic range includes only western Oregon,
although populations have been found in recent years in south-
western Washington. In Rare Vascular Plants of British Columbia
(Douglas, Straley, and Meidinger 1998), however, this taxon is
included and cited from southern Vancouver Island. This is a
considerable range extension, and prompted me to borrow
specimens with this name from the herbarium at the Royal British
Columbia Museum (V). I had expected them to be misnamed, but to
my surprise, they appeared to be correctly identified. The
museum sent five specimens (listed below), all of which had been
annotated by such _Lupinus_ luminaries as C.P. Smith and David
Dunn. I found no reason to disagree with these earlier deter-
minations. _Lupinus sulphureus_ ssp. _kincaidii_ does indeed
appear to be native to Vancouver Island.
All of the specimens that I reviewed were collected in the
1920's from the Oak Bay area near Victoria. One has the word
"Introduced" penciled on to it in C.P. Smith's handwriting. If
Smith felt the taxon was adventive, that might explain why he
did not mention it from British Columbia in his publications on
the genus. In The Lupines of Canada and Alaska, Dunn (1966)
includes this taxon and states that it is probably introduced,
but concedes that it could be relictual to Vancouver Island.
This latter notion seems most likely, since this lupine is
neither showy nor weedy and thus unlikely to be easily spread.
Also, other plant species have disjunctions from Oregon to
Vancouver Island, so it is not that strange to see this lupine
show that pattern, as well. It seems prudent from a conservation
perspective to consider the Vancouver Island material native,
and the species should still be looked for in the Victoria area.
In addition, we should keep our eyes open for it in adjacent
regions such as the NE Olympic Peninsula and the Gulf and San
Since the distribution of Fender's blue butterfly is closely
tied to the lupine, I also inspected the specimens closely for
eggs of the butterfly (which are laid on the undersides of the
leaves). I saw no eggs, but some leaves showed evidence of
herbivory by insects, a calling card of some butterfly larvae.
This insect herbivory is pretty inconclusive, however, and
although the lupine was present on Vancouver Island as late as
the 1920's, the presence of the butterfly is uncertain and seems
unlikely. In fact, other blues occur in this region and may have
utilized this lupine as a food plant near Victoria.
The nomenclature of this lupine also deserves a comment. It was
originally described as _Lupinus oreganus_ by Heller, and this
name still has some merit. This lupine clearly falls naturally
within what C.P. Smith called the _Calcaratus_ complex, which
include _L. sulphureus._ Phillips (1955) reduced _L. oreganus_
to a subspecies of _L. sulphureus,_ but he did so without ex-
planation. Clearly, though, he took a broad view of _Lupinus
sulphureus_ because he recognized five subspecies. Even so, what
Phillips called _L. sulphureus_ is a very diverse group, and
_Lupinus sulphureus_ ssp. _kincaidii_ stands out as geographi-
cally isolated and morphologically distinct. It has a charac-
teristic kink or ruffle in the banner, which, combined with long
leaf petioles and glabrous upper leaf-surfaces makes it easy to
identify. The geographic isolation of the taxon, its ease of
identification, and lack of obvious intermediates between other
subspecies argue in my mind for specific rank. I am not an
authority on perennial lupines, however, and I am cautioned by
Smith's (1946) sage words that when it comes to the _Calcarati,_
"if you are looking for trouble, you will find it here." I bring
up this taxonomic subject to fuel conversation and debate and to
hear what others may think.
I thank George Douglas and Ed Alverson for prodding me to look
into the report of this lupine from Vancouver Island and provid-
ing feedback on some of the ideas offered here. Thanks also to
Ken Chambers for his insights into the nomenclature of this
Records of _Lupinus sulphureus_ ssp. _kincaidii_ on Vancouver
Island: Specimens from Royal British Columbia Museum Victoria
British Columbia: Victoria, June 5, 1929, Mrs. Priestly (V
accession no. 8704); grassy flat, Victoria, May 1925, Rev. R.
Connell (V accession no. 7634); Oak Bay, V.I., June 30, 1929,
W.B. Anderson (V accession no. 8696); Oak Bay, V.I., July 11,
1927, Rev R. Connell (V accession no. 8208); grassy flat, Oak
Bay Flat, Victoria, June 16 (19?), 1924, Rev. R. Connell (V
accession no. 7453).
Dunn, D.B. and J.M. Gillett. 1966. _The Lupines of Canada and
Alaska._ Canada Department of Agriculture Monograph No. 2.
Queen's Printer, Ottawa.
Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, and D.V. Meidinger. 1998. _Rare
Vascular Plants of British Columbia._ BC Environment, Vic-
toria, British Columbia.
Phillips, L.L. 1955. A revision of the perennial species of
_Lupinus_ of North America exclusive of southwestern United
States and Mexico. _Research Studies of the State College of
Smith, C.P. 1946. _Species Lupinorum._ _Lupinus_ in North
America Basic taxonomy. _Signature 32,_ paper 54:545-551.
WASHINGTON RARE PLANT CONSERVATION PROGRAM CONFERENCE
From: "K. Dlouhy" <kdlouhy at u.washington.edu>
The Washington Rare Plant Conservation Program is organizing a
two-day conference to discuss issues related specifically to the
conservation and management of rare plants-vascular and
nonvascular-and rare ecosystems in Washington. The conference is
schedule for April 17-18, 2000 and will be held at the Univer-
sity of Washington's Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle,
This is the first-ever meeting focused entirely on Washington
rare species and ecosystems and will bring together researchers,
managers, and other individuals with a variety of interests in
this area. The goal of this conference is simple: to share ideas
and strategies for the conservation of our rare, native flora.
April 17 (9:00 - 16:35): A Focus on Rare Species
Plant Conservation in the Pacific Northwest (A.R.
Kruckeberg), _Castilleja levisecta_ (J.B. Wentworth + J.
Gamon & al.), _Rorripa columbiae_ (E. Habegger & al.),
_Ranunculus reconditus_ (D.L. Wilderman), _Silene seelyi_ (D.
Malkin), _Lesquerella tuplashensis_ & _Eriogonum codium_ (K.
Beck & al.), _Polemomonium pectinatum_ (C. Gilbert), _Howel-
lia aquatica_ (J. Gamon), pteridophytes (E. Alverson), rare
mosses (J.A.S. Harpel), rare lichens (K. A. Glew), importance
of herbarium specimens (S. Gage), computer plant keys (Bruce
April 18 (9:00 - 16:30): A Focus on Ecosystems and Management
Traditional plant management (N. Turner), flora of Lake
Isabel (C. Antieau), cattle grazing & E WA vernal pools (W.
Brown), cattle grazing & _Sisyrinchium sarmentosum_ (A.N.
Raven), oak woodlands, dry prairies & balds (C. Chappell),
burning and _Castilleja levisecta_ (P.W. Dunwiddie & al.),
rare plants & major highways in central WA (W.S. Null),
reintroducing _Lilium occidentale_ (E.O. Guerrant, Jr.),
techniques for reintroductions in western prairies (T. Kaye &
K. Kuyendall), fire & rare plants in Wenatchee Mtns. (R.J.
Harrod & D.E. Knecht), status of rare plant protection in WA
(J. Gamon), panel discussion.
Includes all conference presentations, lunches, breaks,
parking, and conference materials.
Before April 1, 2000 (regular/student): US$70.00/US$55.00 for
1 day, US$110.00/US$90.00 for 2 days After April 1, 2000:
US$80.00/65.00 for 1 day, US$130.00/100 for 2 days (Make
check payable to the University of Washington.)
Mail or Fax to:
Jean Robins, Washington Rare Plant Conservation Program
Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington
Box 354115, 3501 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98195
Phone: 206.685.2590 Fax: 206.685.2692
For more information see http://depts.washington.edu/rareplnt !
THE AUTHOR OF THE DRIFTWOOD VALLEY BOOK DIED [BEN # 235]
From: Jennifer Bidlake-Schroeder <jbidlake at axys.net>
A while ago you posted information about my grandmother,
Theodora Gray (published as Theodora Stanwell Fletcher) and her
book Driftwood Valley:
Stanwell-Fletcher, Theodora C. 1999. Driftwood Valley: a woman
naturalist in the northern wilderness. Northwest Reprints.
Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR. 352 p. ISBN 0-
87071-524-0 [softcover] Price: US$17.95.
I thought it might be appropriate to let people know that my
grandmother has since passed on. She was of good health until
the spring of 1998 when she fell ill. She slowly recovered but
never to her original health. This Christmas, with family visit-
ing, she again fell ill. She finally passed on in mid January.
She was found in her bed with her bird book and binoculars at
her side. She had just turned 94.
Since her passing our family has received many wonderful cards
and letters from people who knew my grandmother or read her
books (there were three). She touched many people's lives and
she will be missed.
A MONUMENTAL DUAL SYNONYMIZED CHECKLIST AND CHROMOSOME LIST
From: Rudi Schmid <schmid at socrates.berkeley.edu>, condensed from
the detailed review in _Taxon_ 48: 876-878 (Nov. 1999).
Haeupler, Henning (ed.). _Die Farn- und Bluetenpflanzen
Deutschlands._ Vol. 1. Wisskirchen, Rolf & Haeupler, Henning
(with a chromosome atlas by Focke Albers and contribs. by
Klaus Adolphi et 39 al.). _Standardliste der Farn- und
Bluetenpflanzen Deutschlands._ Ed. by Bundesamt fuer
Naturschutz. 1998. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Wollgrasweg 41, 70599
Stuttgart, Germany (http://www.balogh.com/ulmer/ulmer.html).
765 pp., unill., 303x234 mm, ISBN 3-8001- 3360-1 (HB), DM
Massive in size, weight, and Teutonic thoroughness, but surpris-
ingly inexpensive, indeed a bargain (about US$72.75 at current
exchange rates) in view of its completeness and excellence, this
synonymized checklist of the vascular plants of Germany is the
first detailed one for this country in 60 years (since R.
Mansfeld, _Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges._ 58a: 1-323, 1940). The 31-
page textual front matter has a comprehensive introduction,
which includes a 3-page bibliography and a 4-page glossary. The
introduction should be digested to use effectively this rich and
complex work. There then follows a 516-page alphabetical listing
of taxa from _Abies_ through _Zostera noltii._ This gives ac-
cepted names in bold type plus synonyms indented in normal type,
in all some 4200 species and infraspecific taxa in 777 genera,
with synonyms about 15,000 names total. Coverage involves 3
families, 8 genera, and 12 species (plus infraspecific taxa) of
gymnosperms, despite the titular "Bluetenpflanzen."
Specifically, the work accepts 2674/2705 "normal" species, 936
apomictic ones, and 109/114 nothospecies (hybrid species), for a
total of 3719/3755 species, plus 369/374 assorted infraspecific
taxa, for a grand total of 4088/4129 taxa The numbers divided by
a slash reflect a broad or conservative versus a narrow or
liberal species concept of _Oenothera_ (pp. 330-340).
_Oenothera_ I by lumper W. Dietrich has 7 species, including 2
nothospecies, but no infraspecific taxa, whereas _Oenothera_ II
by splitter K. Rostanski has 46 species, including 7
nothospecies and 9 varieties. The 1-page English summary lists
12 new combinations and typifications, whereas page 17 lists 70
important name changes (all of these names were previously
Synonymy is referenced and extensive (basionyms first, other
synonyms chronological), for instance, 35 names for _Cystopteris
fragilis_ or 15 for _Calamintha nepeta._ Throughout the work and
appearing in red type are synonyms cross-referenced to the
accepted names. Notes on systematics, nomenclature, as well as
biology of genera and species also appear in red type and often
are extensive, for example, four pages for _Ranunculus,_ three
for _Polypodium,_ or two on _Taraxacum._ These red-type comments
alone make this compilation very significant, including for
taxonomists working far beyond Germany.
Following the invaluable 516-page alphabetical list of taxa is a
64- page chapter consisting of five parts:
1. R. Wisskirchen's systematic list from the divisional through
the family level consisting of classification systems some-
what modified from Cronquist (1981, 1988) for the an-
giosperms, Ehrendorfer (1991, _Strasburger,_ ed. 33) for the
gymnosperms, and Derrick et al. (_Sommerfeltia_ 6: i-xx, 1-
94, 1987) for the pteridophytes;
2. F. Alber's general remarks about chromosome numbers of
3. W. Bennert's comments on special problems in determining
chromosome numbers of pteridophytes;
4. a 4-page index to families and genera treated in part "5";
5. F. Albers's 55-page list of chromosome numbers of taxa
arranged taxonomically and representing chromosome counts
published since 1950 for central European populations.
All taxa are listed, even those without chromosome data, as
five columns for species of _Taraxacum;_ including these
shows the lacunae in our knowledge. Importantly, Albers's
list of chromosome numbers contains many new unpublished
counts (indicated by an *), for instance, 20 for the
Ending this monster work are (a) a 28-page bibliography to the
alphabetical list of taxa and to the list of chromosome numbers,
and (b) a 121-page index listing, sans page numbers, accepted
names and synonyms cross-referenced to the former. [The section
on chromosome numbers and the index have separate parts for
_Oenothera_ I and II (see above).] Alas, the valuable introduc-
tion is not indexed.
This fine work is remarkably free of typos and other slips. The
book is very user friendly, once one understands what the red
type, shading, boxes, bolding, etc., signify. Due to the com-
pleteness and excellence of this work, it would be a pity if its
being in German would restrict its use (and sales!) to mainly
central Europe. This dual synonymized checklist- chromosome list
for Germany should be incredibly valuable to systematists in
many other lands. Kudos to all involved for a tremendous ac-
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