BEN # 263
aceska at victoria.tc.ca
Wed Jan 17 03:33:15 EST 2001
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No. 263 January 16, 2000
aceska at victoria.tc.ca Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
This issue of BEN is dedicated to the memory of
ANTONI W. H. (TON) DAMMAN
who died on December 27, 2000
ANTONI W. H. (TON) DAMMAN (1932-2000)
From: Bernard Goffinet <goffinet at uconnvm.uconn.edu>
originally posted on bryonet <bryonet-l at mtu.edu>
(edited for BEN by Adolf Ceska & Karen Golinski)
Antoni (Ton) W. H. Damman, 68, of Manhattan, Kansas, formally of
Tolland, Connecticut, died suddenly at Middlesex Hospital, in
Middletown, Connecticut on Dec. 27, 2000. Ton was born April 21,
1932 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, son of the late Antoni and
Wilhemina (Adriana) Damman. He studied Plant Ecology at the
University of Wageningen, the Netherlands and received his
undergraduate and MS degrees.
In 1956, Ton immigrated to Newfoundland, Canada where he was a
research scientist with the Canadian Forest Service, in St.
Johns, Newfoundland. He received his Ph.D. in Biology from the
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1964. Ton immigrated to the
United States in 1967 to accept a faculty position in the
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University
of Connecticut, Storrs. While a professor of Ecology, he
provided instruction in Botany, Plant Geography, Plant Ecology,
and Field Ecology. Ton retired from the University of Connec-
ticut in 1996 and moved to Manhattan, Kansas where he joined the
faculty in the Division of Biology at Kansas State University.
Ton established a long and distinguished career in wetland
ecology and published widely on the ecology, biogeochemistry and
vegetation of peatlands, vegetation-habitat relationships,
vegetation classification and mapping, ecological approaches to
land classification and plant geography of eastern North
America. He conducted the majority of his work in Newfoundland
and Eastern Canada, throughout the Eastern US, and in Northern
He willingly volunteered his time to many professional societies
and conservation organizations. Ton was a member of the Vegeta-
tion Classification Panel of the Ecological Society of America
(ESA) and helped significantly in the ongoing Initiative for a
Standardized Classification of Vegetation in the United States.
Ton had a passion for the outdoors and remote, beautiful places.
He spent much of his life studying botany and plant ecology all
over the world and enjoyed sharing his knowledge with others.
Dr. Bill Meades, who was Ton's Ph.D. student at the University
of Connecticut in the 1970's, wrote to us: "I have never met a
man before or since with so much enthusiasm for his science, his
students and life in general. The expression on his face to see
a new plant or an "old friend " in a new habitat was unfor-
getable. The world has lost a good person and great plant
ecologist." Ton's love of life, sense of humor and passion for
teaching will be missed by all who knew him.
Ton is survived by his wife, Loretta Johnson Damman, of Manhat-
tan, Kansas and formerly of Tolland, Connecticut, his son Hans
Damman of Sardis, British Columbia, his daughter Margreet Else
Damman Canam of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, two sisters,
Alida Wevers and Johanna Wilhelm of the Netherlands, four
grandchildren Gilbert and Sally Damman, Rebecca and Michael
Canam, and very dear friend and sister-in-law Else Visscher. Ton
was pre-deceased by his first wife Blandina Catherina Visscher.
A fund was created in the memory of Ton Damman and donations may
be made to the "University of Connecticut Foundation" care of
the Ton Damman Fund, Box U-3206, Storrs, CT 06269-3206.
[Ton Damman's bibliography will appear in the next BEN. - AC]
AAPA MIRES OF NORTHERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA: NOTES ON
ECOLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY AND CONSERVATION NEEDS
From: Pekka Pakarinen, Department of Ecology and Systematics,
University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland
[pekka.pakarinen at helsinki.fi]
Mires (peatlands) can be surveyed at different scales. In Norway
Moen & Singsaas (1994) have outlined a four-level series of
concepts where 'mire feature' refers to microtopographical units
(such as flarks, hollows, hummocks) and 'mire complex' to the
largest unit: the entire extent of a peatland bounded by dry
terrain. Mire complex types have a characteristic macro- and
microtopography, peat stratigraphy, hydrology and arrangement of
plant communities (Sjors 1948, Ruuhijarvi 1960, Damman 1995,
Aapa mire is a specific northern peatland complex type
originally described by Cajander (1913) from northern Finland.
According to Cajander, aapa mires (Aapamoore in German) have the
following key characteristics: they are large and often branch-
ing wetlands, predominantly treeless and in central parts
covered by wet fens showing a distinct pattern of flarks
(=rimpis) and strings. Unlike raised mires (Hochmoore),
ombrotrophic vegetation types are to a large extent missing from
central parts of aapa mires. According to Ruuhijarvi (1960) the
vegetation and surface patterns of Finnish aapa mires show
regional regularity. High reticulate patterns are characteristic
of aapa mires in the north-boreal/subarctic whereas low parallel
strings are common in the south-middle boreal zones.
The Swedish and Norwegian authors emphasize the mixed nature of
northern flark mires - the alternation of minerotrophic wet
flarks and locally ombrotrophic hummocky strings - and conse-
quently prefer the term 'mixed mire' (Sjors et al., 1965; Moen &
Singsaas, 1995: Rydin et al., 1999). In international usage and
as an ecological term, however, mixed mire remains somewhat
vague. On the other hand, in the study of the development of a
central Swedish peatland complex, Foster and Fritz (1987) apply
the concept 'patterned fen' synonymously with aapa mire (sensu
In North America, patterned minerotrophic mires (patterned fens)
have been observed and studied in many areas with cold winter
climate and minerogenous flooding caused by snowmelt or by
groundwater: northern Ontario (Sjors, 1963), Red Lake Peatland
in northern Minnesota (Heinselman, 1963; Glaser et al., 1981;
Glaser, 1992), northern Alberta (Vitt et al., 1975) Great Slave
Lake area in Northwest Territories (Pakarinen & Talbot, 1976),
northern part of the island of Newfoundland (Damman, 1979) and
east-central Labrador, among raised bogs (Foster & King; 1984;
and the author's field observations, 1982) as well as in some
regions of Alaska (string wetlands in Kenai National Wildilfe
Refuge: Talbot et al., 1985). The national wetland class-
ification of Canada lists several Fen Wetland Forms of which
especially Net Fen and Northern Ribbed have typical features of
aapa mires (Zoltai et al., 1988a, 1988b; Warner & Rubec, 1997).
An excellent color photo of a representative Canadian aapa mire
(ribbed fen) is printed in the back cover of the Wetlands of
Canada book (Rubec, 1988).
While the European Union (EU) Habitats Directive classifies aapa
mires as a priority habitat type, Finland and Sweden have a
special responsibility to effectively protect these wetland
ecosystems. One example of an on-going conservation project in
SW Lapland is described at
North European aapa mires are unique wetlands with high vegeta-
tional diversity and rich birdlife compared to more southern
raised bogs. It is also significant to note that although the
terminologies vary, ecologically corresponding fen (or bog-fen)
wetland complexes occur over geographically extensive areas of
the boreal and subarctic regions of North America and should be
given consideration by international mire and wetland conserva-
tion programs (e.g., IMCG, IUCN/Ramsar Bureau).
Cajander, A.K. 1913. Studien uber die Moore Finnlands. Acta
Forestalia Fennica 2(3): 1-208.
Damman, A.W.H. 1979. Geographic patterns in peatland development
in eastern North America. Proc. Int. Symposium on Class-
ification of Peat and Peatlands, Pp. 42-57. International
Peat Society, Helsinki.
Damman, A.W.H. 1995. Boreal peatlands in Norway and eastern
North America: a comparison. Gunneria (Univ. Trondheim) 70:
Dierssen, K. 1996. Vegetation Nordeuropas. Stuttgart, 838 p.
Foster, D.R. & S.C. Fritz. 1987. Mire development, pool forma-
tion and landscape processes on patterned fens in Dalarna,
Central Sweden. Journal of Ecology 75: 409-437.
Foster, D.R. & G.A. King. 1984. Landscape features, vegetation,
and developmental history of a patterned fen in south-eastern
Labrador, Canada. Journal of Ecology 72: 115-143.
Glaser, P.H. 1992. Peat landforms. Pp. 3-14 in: Wright, H.E.
Jr., B.A. Coffin, & N.E. Aaseng (eds.) The patterned peat-
lands of Minnesota. (University of Minnesota Press), Min-
Glaser, P.H., G.A. Wheeler, E. Gorham, & H.E. Wright, Jr. 1981.
The patterned mires of the Red Lake peatland, northern Min-
nesota: vegetation, water chemistry and landforms. Journal of
Ecology 69: 575-599.
Heinselman, M.L. 1963. Forest sites, bog processes, and peatland
types in the Glacial Lake Agassiz region, Minnesota. Ecologi-
cal Monographs 33: 327-372.
Moen, A. & S. Singsaas. 1994. Excursion guide for the 6th IMCG
field symposium in Norway 1994. Univ. Trondheim
Vitenskapsmuseet Rapport Botanisk Ser. 1994(2): 1-159.
Pakarinen, P. & S. Talbot. 1976. Observations on the aapa-mire
and raised-bog vegetation near Great Slave Lake, Canada. Suo
27: 69-76 (English summary). Helsinki.
Rubec, C. (ed.) 1988. Wetlands of Canada. Environment Canada
(Ecol. Land Classif. Ser. 24: 1-452). Ottawa.
Ruuhijarvi, R. 1960. Uber die regionale Einteilung der nordfin-
nischen Moore. Ann. Bot. Soc. Fennici 31, No. 1. 360 p.
Rydin, H., H. Sjors, & M. Lofroth. 1999. Mires. Acta Phytogeo-
graphica Suecica 84: 91-112.
Sjors, H. 1948. Myrvegetation i Bergslagen. Acta Phytogeogra-
phica Suecica 21: 1-299.
Sjors, H. 1963. Bogs and fens on Attawapiskat River, northern
Ontario. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 186: 45-133.
Sjors, H., F. Bjorkback, & Y. Nordqvist. 1965. Northern mires.
Acta Phytogeographica Suecica 50: 180-197.
Talbot, S.S., M.B. Shasby, & T.N. Bailey. 1985. Landsat-
facilitated vegetation classification of the Kenai National
Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas, Alaska. Pp. 333-345 in:
The Tenth William T. Pecora Remote Sensing Symposium,
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Vitt, D.H., P. Achuff, & R.E. Andrus. 1975: The vegetation and
chemical properties of the patterned fens in the Swan Hills,
north-central Alberta. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 2776-2795.
Warner, B.G. & C.D.A. Rubec (eds.) 1997. The Canadian Wetland
Classification System. Wetlands Research Centre, University
of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. 68 p.
Zoltai, S.C., C. Tarnocai, G.F. Mills, & H. Veldhuis. 1988a.
Wetlands of Subarctic Canada. Pp. 55-96 in: Rubec, C. (ed.)
Wetlands of Canada. Ottawa.
Zoltai, S.C., S. Taylor, J.K. Jeglum, G.F. Mills, & J.D.
Johnson. 1988b. Wetlands of Boreal Canada. Pp. 97-154 in:
Rubec, C. (ed.) Wetlands of Canada. Ottawa.
IDENTIFICATION OF AN INTRODUCED POPULATION OF _SPHAGNUM
CUSPIDATUM_ IN BURNS BOG, BRITISH COLUMBIA
From: Karen Golinski, School of Environmental Studies, P.O. Box
1700, University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., V8W 2Y2
[golinski at UVic.CA]
Ton Damman's contributions to mire ecology ranged from com-
prehensive studies of floristic, hydrological and chemical
characteristics of eastern North American mires to more minor,
but important, work such as the identification of _Sphagnum
cuspidatum_ Ehrh. ex Hoffm. in Burns Bog, near Vancouver,
British Columbia, Canada in November 1999. Ton was part of an
invited panel of scientists that provided advice to the provin-
cial government on the ecological significance of Burns Bog, a
large domed bog just south of Vancouver. During a field trip,
Ton and Klaus Dierssen identified _S. cuspidatum_ in the field.
Ton collected a specimen and confirmed the field identification
shortly after his return to Kansas. A voucher specimen is
deposited at the University of British Columbia herbarium (G.K.
Prior to 1999, existence of the species in British Columbia was
unclear. It had been reported from B.C. by some authors (e.g.,
Crum and Anderson, 1981; Crum, 1984; Schofield, 1992), although
others thought it did not occur in western North America (e.g.,
Hill, 1980; R. Andrus, pers. comm. January 2000). Its uncertain
status was likely based on confusion with the aquatic form of
Sphagnum pacificum, a species endemic to the west coast of North
America, described by Flatberg (1987). Ton's discovery of _S.
cuspidatum_ in Burns Bog prompted us to re-examine material in
the UBC herbarium, at which time we found an overlooked collec-
tion made by W.B. Schofield (W.B. Schofield #77531) in 1982,
annotated by Kjell I. Flatberg as _Sphagnum cuspidatum_ s. lat.
in 1984. Thus _S. cuspidatum_ appears to have been present in
the bog prior to 1982.
In Burns Bog, _Sphagnum cuspidatum_ forms small floating mats in
ditches alongside recently cleared cranberry fields. It is also
widespread and abundant in parts of the bog where only the upper
layer of peat was mined. Both areas are wet throughout the year,
and plants are submerged to emergent.
_Sphagnum cuspidatum_ was likely introduced to Burns Bog on
machinery used for peat harvesting or agriculture, or in plant
material used in commercial cranberry (_Vaccinium macrocarpon_)
and blueberry (_Vaccinium corymbosum_) operations. Many non-
native plant species of eastern North American origin are now
widespread in disturbed parts of Burns Bog, including
_Eriophorum virginicum_, _Hypericum boreale_, _Juncus brevi-
caudatus_, _Juncus canadensis_, _J. pelocarpus_, _Lysimachia
terrestris_, _Rubus allegheniensis_, _Triadenum fraseri_,
_Vaccinium corymbosum_, and _Vaccinium macrocarpon_
(Taylor, 1994; Lomer, 1995, 1996, Madrone Consultants, 1999,
Peter Zika, pers. comm. to A. Ceska, November 1999). Most of
these species were first reported in British Columbia by Lomer
(1995) from the vicinity of Vancouver, in bogs and wetlands that
were converted to commercial blueberry or cranberry farms.
Elsewhere in Canada, _Sphagnum cuspidatum_ has been reported
from all provinces east of and including Saskatchewan (Crum and
Anderson, 1981; Ireland, 1982; Brassard, 1983; Crum, 1984; Sims
and Baldwin, 1996). Its range also extends south along the east
coast of the continent to Florida and inland to Kansas. _Sphag-
num cuspidatum_ is often submerged in shallow water in depres-
sions or drainage tracks in ombrogenous to weakly minerogenous
mires (Crum and Anderson, 1981; Ireland, 1982; Crum, 1984; Sims
and Baldwin, 1996). It is also a pioneer species along the
margins of lakes, and in Atlantic Canada it colonizes low-
gradient roadside drainage ditches (Crum and Anderson, 1981;
Another introduced moss at Burns Bog is _Campylopus introflexus_
(Hedw.) Brid. (Taylor, 1994, 1996, 1997); it is native to the
Southern Hemisphere (Schofield, 1997; Taylor, 1997). _Sphagnum
cuspidatum_ is probably the only introduced species of _Sphag-
num_ in British Columbia. Reports of _Sphagnum_ introductions
are few. For example, the single population of _Sphagnum
fimbriatum_ in South Africa was likely introduced from Europe
during trout introduction to streams in the area (Magill 1981).
Although it is always more exciting to discover a previously
undetected native species than it is to find an introduced one,
Ton Damman's discovery of _S. cuspidatum_ at Burns Bog helped
clarify our understanding of _Sphagnum_ in British Columbia.
Brassard, G.R. 1983. Checklist of the mosses of the island of
Newfoundland, Canada. The Bryologist 86(1): 54-63.
Crum, H.A. 1984. Sphagnopsida, Sphagnaceae. North American
Flora, Series II 11: 1-180.
Crum, H.A. and L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North
America. Columbia University Press, New York.
Flatberg, K.I. 1987. _Sphagnum (Cuspidata) pacificum_, sp. nov.
The Bryologist 92(1): 116-119.
Hill, M.O. 1980. Sphagnopsida. Pp. 30-76 in: Smith A.J.E. (ed.).
The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, UK.
Ireland, R.R. 1982. Moss Flora of the Maritime Provinces. Publi-
cations in Botany, No. 13. National Museums of Canada, Ot-
Lomer, F. 1995. Introduced bog plants around Vancouver, British
Columbia. BEN (Botanical Electronic News) No. 104.
Lomer, F. 1996. Introduced bog plants, Vancouver, British Colum-
bia - Update. BEN (Botanical Electronic News) No. 128.
Madrone Consultants. 1999. Burns Bog Ecosystem Review: Plants
and Plant Communities. Report prepared for Delta Fraser
Properties Partnership and the Environmental Assessment
Office in support of the Burns Bog Ecosystem Review, with
additional work on publicly owned lands conducted for the
Environmental Assessment Office in association with the
Corporation of Delta. Madrone Consultants Ltd., Duncan, B.C.
vi+144 p. + Appendiges.
Magill, R.E. 1981. Flora of Southern Africa. Bryophyta. Part 1,
Fascicle 1. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Republic
of South Africa, Pretoria.
Schofield, W.B. 1992. Some Common Mosses of British Columbia.
Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Schofield, W.B. 1997. Bryophytes unintentionally introduced to
British Columbia. BEN (Botanical Electronic News) No. 162.
Sims, R.A. & K.A. Baldwin. 1996. _Sphagnum_ species in Northwes-
tern Ontario: a Field Guide to their Identification. Northern
Ontario Development Agreements Northern Forestry Program,
Technical Report TR-30. Great Lakes Forestry Center, Sault
Ste. Marie, Ontario.
Taylor, T. 1994. _Eriophorum virginicum_ (Cyperaceae) in British
Columbia. BEN (Botanical Electronic News) No. 82.
Taylor, T. 1996. A rare moss in Burns Bog. Discovery (Vancouver)
Taylor, T. 1997. _Campylopus introflexus_ - Moss introduced in
British Columbia. BEN (Botanical Electronic News) No. 162.
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