dorsalized axolotls?

Richard Gordon gordonr at
Sun Oct 20 09:16:02 EST 1996

Dear Andrew,

For lithium effects in urodeles, the attached list might help. Please
summarize what you learn for the rest of us.

Yours, -Dick Gordon

At  4:36 PM 10/19/96 -0700, A. Johnson wrote:
>Does anyone know if axolotls can be dorsalized by incubating them in LiCl
>like Xenopus embryos?  If so, is there a reference available?
>Andrew D. Johnson
>Department of Biological Science
>BIO 221
>Florida State University
>Tallahassee, FL  32306-3050
>phone:  (904) 644-1303
>  fax:  (904) 644-0481
>e-mail:  johnson at

Dent, J.N. & C.W. Sheppard (1957). The distribution of lithium in amphibian
gastrulae autoradiographically demonstrated. J. Exp. Zool.  135, 587-598.

Dollander, A. & M. Laurent (1951). Action du chlorure de lithium sur la
structure de l'oeuf de certains amphibiens urod=E8les. C.R. Ass. Anat.  38,

Dollander, A. & M. Laurent (1952). Action du chlorure de lithium sur la
formation du croissant gris et sur la segmentation de l'oeuf d'Amphibien.
C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris  146, 1610-1612.

Englander, H. & A.G. Johnen (1967). Die morphogenetische Wirkung von
Li-ionen auf Gastrula-Ektoderm von Ambystoma  und Triturus. Wilhelm Roux'
Arch. EntwMech. Org.  159, 346-356.

Ficq, A. (1954). Localisation et dosage du lithium dans les embryons
d'Amphibiens. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph.  2(3), 204-215.

Gebhardt, D.O.E. & P.D. Nieuwkoop (1964). The influence of lithium on the
competence of the ectoderm in Ambystoma mexicanum. J. Embryol. Exp.
Morphol.  12(2), 317-331.

Gustafson, T. (1950). Survey of the morphogenetic action of the lithium ion
and the chemical basis of its action. Rev. suisse Zool.  57(Suppl. 1),

Hall, T.S. (1942). The mode of action of lithium salts in amphibian
development. J. Exp. Zool.  89, 1-36.

Johnen, A.G. (1970). The influence of Li and SCN ions on the
differentiation capacities of Amblystoma  ectoderm and their changes as a
result of combined treatment with both ions. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv
Entwicklungsmech. Org.  165, 150-162.

Lehmann, F.E. (1937b). Mesodermisierung des pr=E4sumptiven Chordamaterials
durch Einwirkung von Lithiumchlorid auf die Gastrula von Triton alpestris.
Wilhelm Roux' Archiv Entwicklungsmech. Org.  136, 111-146.

Lehmann, F.E. (1938a). Regionale Verschiedenheiten des Organisators von
Triton, insbesondere in der vorderen und hinteren Kopfregion, nachgewiesen
durch phasenspezifische Erzeugung von lithiumbedingten und operativ
bewirkten Regionaldefekten. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv Entwicklungsmech. Org.
138, 106-159.

Masui, Y. (1959). Induction of neural structures under the influence of
lithium chloride. Annot. Zool. Jap.  32, 23-30.

Masui, Y. (1960). Alteration of the differentiation of gastrula ectoderm
under the influence of lithium chloride. Mem. Konan. Univ. Sci. Ser.  4,

Masui, Y. (1961). Mesodermal and endodermal differentiation of the
presumptive ectoderm of Triturus  gastrula through influence of lithium
ions. Experientia  17, 458-459.

Ogi, K. (1961). Vegetalization of the presumptive ectoderm of the Triturus
gastrula by exposure to LiCl solution. Embryologica  5, 384-396.

Pasteels, J.J. (1945b). Recherches sur l'action du LiCl sur les oeufs des
Amphibiens. Arch. Biol.  56, 105-183.

Shi, D.L., J.C. Beetschen, M. Delarue, J.F. Riou, C. Daguzan & J.C. Boucaut
(1990). Lithium induces dorsal-type migration of mesodermal cells in the
entire marginal zone of urodele amphibian embryos. Roux's Archiv. Dev.
Biol.  199, 1-13.

Dr. Richard Gordon, Department of Radiology
University of Manitoba, Room ON104, Health Sciences Centre
820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, MB R3A 1R9 Canada
Phone: (204) 789-3828,  Fax: (204) 787-2080, Home: (204) 589-0411
E-mail: GordonR at

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