There are some places available for the course "Introduction to Functional
Morphology and Biomechanics - 4th edition". Date: January 11-15, 2016.
EXTENDED REDUCED FEE: Nov. 30th!
Instructors: Dr. Jordi Marcé-Nogué (Universität Hamburg, Germany), Dr. Richard
Fariña (Universidad de La República, Uruguay), Dr. Pere Ibáñez-Gimeno
(Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain) and Dr. Soledad De Esteban-Trivigno
((Transmitting Science and Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont,
Course webpage and registration:
1. Statics: Vector notation, force, moment, work, energy, Newton laws, levers,
free body diagram and equilibrium..
2. Beam Theory: Equilibrium in the cross-section of a beam, laws and diagrams.
3. Elasticity in Beams: Axial forces, Bending, Shear and Torsion.
4. Basic principles:
-Mass , Conditions of equilibrium, Biological materials, function and
properties: Stress, strain, elastic modulus. Factor of safety.
5. Mastication in vertebrates.
- Transition from reptiles to mammals.
- Terrestrial locomotion and athleticism in tetrapods.
- Beam theory applied to the long bones of the extremities in parasagittal
- Second moment of area, section modulus, strength indicator.
- Examples in reconstructing habits in extinct vertebrates.
6. Scale and allometry.
- Dynamic similarity.
- Froude number, origin of the concept and application to terrestrial
- Geometric similarity, isometry and allometry.
- The importance of body size. Metabolic rate, athleticism and skin features.
- Geometric and elastic similarities.
- Body mass estimation.
7. Entheseal changes.
- Definition, types, morphological variation and etiology. Entheseal changes and
their dependence on activity. Terminology.
- Entheseal development: Description vs. quantification. Scoring systems:
Criteria to grade the entheseal changes using different methods. Intraobserver
and interobserver tests.
- Statistical analyses to deduce activity patterns.
- Examples of studies inferring activity patterns from entheseal changes.
8. Cross-sectional properties.
- Previous considerations: Wolff’s Law and bone functional adaptation. Types of
mechanical loadings. Rigidity and strength. Definition and biomechanical meaning
of cross-sectional properties: Cross-sectional areas, second moments of area,
section moduli and shape variables.
- Obtaining images of diaphyseal sections.
- Size standardization for cross-sectional properties.
- Statistical analyses to deduce activity patterns. Comparisons between
populations, sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry.
- Relationship between entheseal changes and cross-sectional properties.
This course will be held in the Sabadell facilities of the Institut Català de
Paleontologia (Barcelona, Spain) and is co-organized by Transmitting Science and
the Institut Catalá de Paleontologia M. Crusafont. Place are limited and will be
covered by strict registration order.
Please feel free to distribute this information between your colleagues if you
consider it appropriate.
Soledad De Esteban-Trivigno, PhD.
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