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How to do experimentation for constructing a bio-nano-electro computer
from geobacter/e.coli bacteria ?
S. B. Khadkikar, Department of Atmospheric and Space Sciences,
University of Pune, Pune, INDIA.
Erach A. Irani, IKB Research Institute, 106 B. Desai Road, Mumbai 400
036. INDIA. [ erach27 [at] yahoo.com ]
Motivation: many attempts to train biology have succeeded. All
attempts to teach computers to learn have failed. Attempts to teach
computers "Artificial Intelligence" have to teach intelligence on
top of adaptive abilities and evolving abilities. Bacteria are
naturally adaptive and evolving so we have to train only intelligence.
1. Mutate the geobacter bacteria with carbon nanotubes so that
they cannot respond as they are used to having carbon nanotubes
sticking on the exterior but grow tentacles like neurons. Brain cells
in mammals do not reproduce. If they reproduce the information is lost
since the wiring connections are lost.
2. Use only the geobacter bacteria mutated above with e.coli.
mutated as above. The carbon nanotubes form transistors on the skin of
the bacteria which will later act as nerves with mutation.
3. Make a mixture of geobacter / e.coli bacteria. The
geobacter bacteria are attracted to electrodes and form colonies on it
(biofilms) using nano-wires of iron compounds called pili. The e.coli.
are used because they are more intelligent presumably and live in the
intestine where time varying food supplies come and keep moving around.
Eventually we are hoping for the bacteria to be a genetic hybrid of
geobacter / E. Coli.
1. Make a grid of 30 * 30 electrodes ( 300 * 300 electrodes if
possible). Dip it into the beaker and make a pattern of
"right-shifting current on the electrode grid", until the bacteria
respond to it. You can check whether the bacteria have responded to it
by seeing if the current take-ups by the bacteria are more or less.
Geobacter bacteria are used in fuel cells (check google.com search on
"geobacter bacteria fuel cells" and also check www.geobacter.org
for a $25 million project on geobacter bacteria).
2. Once the geobacter bacteria respond to right-shift, apply
left-shift, and then both simultaneously, and then "a", "b",
"c", "d" cycling, then finally XOR and Tic-tac-toe. You need
not use a microscope to see if the geobacter bacteria are responding to
the time-varying patterns and predicting which patterns come next ---
just see how much current is delivered to the electrodes.
How to make a computer from geo-bacter bacteria mutated as above ?
1. Once the bacteria respond to patterns as above apply DIFFEerent
neural net training patterns. Read the original parallel distributed
processing books --- "Parallel Distributed Processing by McClelland
and Rumelhart". These bacteria should be able to learn at electronic
speeds since the nano-tubes act as semi-conductors. Thus what a person
learns in 40 years they will learn in seconds or minutes.
2. REWARD FOR THE BACTERIA USING BIO-CHEMICALS
When the bacteria do a complicated task give them a dose of pleasant
bio-chemicals (to them) besides simply food. Computers cannot be
rewarded in a sense that they appreciate (do computers appreciate
anything ?), bacteria can be rewarded.
1. Dr Dobb's AI Newsletter, "Evolving Computation in Bacterial
(www.google.com search for "AI Newsletter Erach Irani")
2. "Intelligent bacteria?",
(www.google.com search for "bacterial intelligence")
3. "Microbial Intelligence",
(www.google.com search for "bacterial intelligence")
4. "Bacterial wisdom, Godel's theorem and creative genomic
webs", Eshel Ben-Jacob,
(www.google.com search for "bacterial intelligence Eschel")
(www.google.com search for "25,000 rat neurons flying F22
6. "Slime mould used to create first robot run by living cells,
Alok Jha, science correspondent",
(www.google.com search on making a robot move using a slime cell)
7. "De novo reconstitution of a functional mammalian urinary
bladder by tissue Engineering", Frank Oberpenning, Jun Meng, James J.
Yoo, and Anthony Atala.
8. "First Bladders Grown in Lab Transplanted, Breakthrough Shows
Promise for Creating Other Human Organs",
8. D.E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group.
"Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure
of Cognition, Volume I and II". MIT Press, 1986.
9. Dr Dobb's AI Newsletter, Entire issue is on biological
10. Obtaining carbon nanotubes from grass. Zhenhui Kang et al 2005
Nanotechnology 16 1192-1195 doi:10.1088/0957-4484/16/8/036
[Nanotechnology 16 1192] (6.13.05)
11. "Scientist Revs Up Power of Microbial Fuel Cells in Unexpected
13. Information on Geobacter bacteria. http://www.geobacter.org
14. Christopher Voigt. Online internet lecture. Programming sight,
touch, and thought into E.Coli.
(www.google.com search for "programming bacteria")
15. Paras Chopra.
Prof. S. B. Khadkikar, MSc, PhD is an internationally recognized
theoretical physicist and is a retired senior professor from Physics
Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad. He is cited in Marquis Who's Who
(science and engineering, world, Asia) in the years 1996-2006. He has
about 80 publications in renowned international journals, mainly in
Dr Erach A. Irani, B.Tech Computer Science (IIT Mumbai, India), M.Tech
Computer Science (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA), PhD
Computer Science (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) has worked all
his life in Computer Science and now theorizes with Prof S. B.
Khadkikar. He is a US Citizen. He has over 20 publications to his
credit while doing his studies at the University of Minnesota, mainly
in computer science and applications of Computer Science to medicine.