formaldehyde and formic acid from methanol in aspartame: Murray: 11.23.2 rmforall

Rich Murray rmforall at att.net
Mon Dec 2 16:39:36 EST 2002

formaldehyde and formic acid from methanol in aspartame:
Murray: 11.23.2 rmforall

Nov 23 2002   

The work of Jack D. Thrasher, PhD, provides an adequate scientific
model and specific biochemical assays for the chronic symptoms of
long-term, low-level exposure to formaldehyde, which is well reported
in the scientific literature to inevitably be in intimate association
with aspartame-methanol-formaldehyde-formic acid metabolism in monkeys.

immune system reactions due to formaldehyde from the 11% methanol in
aspartame: Thrasher: Tephly: Monte: Murray 9.27.2 rmforall

Murray: Thrasher:
simple tests for immune system reactions due to formaldehyde from the
11% methanol in aspartame: Tholen 9.17.2 rmforall

http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_1990.html  [full text]
Arch Environ Health 1990 Jul-Aug;45(4):217-23
Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans
with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.
Thrasher JD, Broughton A, Madison R.
Thrasher & Associates, Northridge, California.

"The patients in our study had symptoms and complaints
related to several organs, as described previously, (4,5,9)
which were similar to symptoms
of workers with multiple chemical sensitivity,(11) cacosmia,(12) and
other chemical exposures. (13-15)  We report on the differences in
humoral and cell-mediated immunity in humans with long-term inhalation
exposure to HCHO vs. asymptomatic students (controls) who experienced
short-term, periodic exposure to the chemical."
[ http://lassesen.com/cfids/cacosmia.htm
Cacosmia (a.k.a. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity)  Details:
* Chemical odour intolerance induced headache, itching eyes, irritated
or congested nose, dry and/or sore throat, cough, dizziness,
and itching or rash.
*  Cacosmics reported increased prevalence of physician-diagnosed
nasal allergies, breast cysts, hypothyroidism, sinusitis,
food sensitivities, irritable bowel, and migraine headache.
Resource: http://www.mcsrr.org ]"

"Symptoms. All patients in this study had sought continuous medical
attention because of multiple organ symptoms involving the central
nervous system (CNS)  (headaches, memory loss, difficulty completing
tasks, dizziness), upper- and lower-respiratory symptoms,
skeletal-muscle complaints, and gastroenteritis.  Three common symptoms
were expressed:
[1.] and initial flu-like illness from which they had not fully
recovered; [2.] chronic fatigue;  and [3.] an olfactory sensitivity to
ambient conditions containing low concentrations of chemicals.

"It is recognized that chemicals and therapeutic drugs are associated
with a Lupus-like syndrome. (28,29 )  The observations made on the
patients in this study support this concept."

Since 11% of aspartame (1120 mg in 2L diet soda, 5.6 12-oz
cans) is 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol), immediately released into the
body after drinking (unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in
molecules inside many fruits), 16 times the 7.8 EPA limit for methanol
in drinking water.  Ingested methanol is then quickly metabolized into
formaldehyde, which in turn becomes formic acid, both of which in
time become carbon dioxide and water-- however, about 30% of the
methanol remains in the body as cumulative durable toxic metabolites of
formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily, a gram every month
(Oppermann, Muldoon, Ranney 1973). 

The question is:  how much of this formaldehyde and formic acid, both 
deadly, potent, cumulative toxins with complex multiple effects, as
much as 6.6 mg total (30% of the 22 mg methanol) from the 200 mg
aspartame in a 12-oz can of diet soda, results in various toxic
processes in people?

We should find that aspartame reactors also react to formaldehyde and
to methanol exposures, while people with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
and the like also react to aspartame and methanol.

Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in
drinking water is 1 ppm,
or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

RTM: ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999
5.30.2 rmforall

A limit of 2 mg daily of formaldehyde in drinking water for a 60-kg
person is .03 mg/kg, roughly equivalent to .03 mg/L, or 1 mmol/L,
since a mole is 30 grams and 1 mmole is .03 gm. This happens to match
the level at which Oyama (2002) found damage in rat cells in vitro.  As
pointed out, 2 L daily diet soda use gives 123 mg daily methanol, 16
times the 7.8 mg EPA daily limit for methanol in drinking water, which
mostly becomes formaldehyde and then formic acid,-- about 30% of the
methanol is thus retained as fairly durable toxic metabolites,
about 37 mg daily, 1 gm monthly. 

Thrasher's report about symptoms from long-term, low-level exposure to
formaldehyde gives much the same litany of complex symptoms as
aspartame reactors, who often report using 2-4 L daily of diet soda,
providing 123-246 mg methanol, resulting in some probable chronic
formaldehyde toxicity-- 10% retention would give 12-24 mg daily
formaldehyde accumulation, about 50-100 times more than the 0.2 mg from
10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde in drinking

Therefore, we can expect to find signs and symptoms of chronic toxicity
from long-term, low-dose formaldehyde exposure in heavy users of
aspartame, such as a daily drinking level of 2-4 L diet soda--
of course there are many other dietary sources.

The most common symptoms are, in rough order of
occurence, considering hundreds of case reports:   * headaches
* many body and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching,
spasms, cramps, or numbness)  *  fever, fatigue
* "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech,
ringing in ears, sexual problems,  poor vision, hearing, or taste
* red face, itching, rashes, burning eyes or throat,
dry mouth or eyes, mouth sores  *  hair loss
* obesity, bloating, edema, anorexia,
poor or excessive hunger or thirst    * breathing problems
*  nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness  * sweating
* racing heart, high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar levels
* seizures   * birth defects  * brain cancers  * addiction
* aggrivates diabetes, autism, ADHD, allergies,
and interstitial cystitis (bladder pain).

RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 1.17.2 rmforall
Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt, and John G Gums
Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following
Discontinuation of Dietary Excitotoxins.
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702–706.
Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder that is
often difficult to treat effectively.
CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome
for two to 17 years are described.
All had undergone multiple treatment
modalities with limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete,
resolution of their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium
glutamate (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
All patients were women with multiple comorbidities
prior to elimination of MSG.
All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.

Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD  Asst. Clinical Prof.  siggy at shands.ufl.edu
Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
Shands Hospital
West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629    352-376-5071

Debbie J. Hypes   painfreeliving at aol.com  304-872-4141  (Case # 1 of 4)
P.O Box 25  Lookout, WV 25868-0025  She has about 1,000 on her local
mailing list, and has been a volunteer activist since 1997.  Her guide
first came out in 1997:  http://www.Pain-Free-Living.net
"The Food Plan: How To Do It"  $ 5 by mail,  free by email.
Her sister Darlene, now 47,  cured her own severe fibromyalgia in 1995
by using an elimination diet, and then Debbie also cured herself by
1997.  Their doctor, Siegfried Schmidt, paying attention, tried it on
two selected women, who got well, and are his third and fourth cases.

http://ww.presidiotex.com/barcelona/index.html  full text
Trocho C, Pardo R, Rafecas I, Virgili J, Remesar X,
Fernandez-Lopez JA, Alemany M  ["Trok-ho"]
Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue
components in vivo.  Life Sci 1998 Jun 26; 63(5): 337-49.
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia,
Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
Maria Alemany, PhD (male)  alemany at porthos.bio.ub.es

Murray: Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
adducts in rats 9.8.2 rmforall
Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
against criticism:
Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
available for $35, [an industry funded organ].  Butchko:
"When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."
[They repeatedly pass on the ageless industry deceit that the methanol
in fruits and vegetables is as as biochemically available as that in
aspartame-- see the 1984 rebuttal by Monte.]

Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Interest 1984:
Monte: Murray 9.23.2 rmforall

Rereading this prescient classic review from 1984, I find its findings
are supported in much recent research, so I am again  making the full
text widely available.
[I have put my comments or corrections in square brackets, and spaced
the text to ease the reader's task]

For instance, I had forgotten this, which answers the industry PR
"science" that fruits and vegetables
supply much more methanol than does aspartame:

"Fruit and vegetables contain pectin
with variable methyl ester content.
However, the human has no digestive enzymes for pectin (6, 25)
particularly the pectin esterase required
for its hydrolysis to methanol (26).

Fermentation in the gut may cause disappearance of pectin (6) but the
production of free methanol is not guaranteed by fermentation (3).  In
fact, bacteria in the colon probably reduce methanol directly to formic
acid or carbon dioxide (6)  (aspartame is completely absorbed before
reaching the colon). Heating of pectins has been shown to cause
virtually no demethoxylation; even temperatures of 120 deg C produced
only traces of methanol (3).  Methanol evolved during cooking of high
pectin foods (7) has been accounted for in the volatile fraction during
boiling and is quickly lost to the atmosphere (49).
Entrapment of these volatiles probably accounts for the elevation in
methanol levels of certain fruit and vegetable products
during canning (31, 33)."

Recent research [see links at end of post] supports his focus on the
methanol to formaldehyde toxic process:

"The United States Environmental Protection Agency in their Multimedia
Environmental Goals for Environmental Assessment recommends a minimum
acute toxicity concentration of methanol in drinking water at 3.9 parts
per million, with a recommended limit of consumption below 7.8 mg/day
(8). This report clearly indicates that methanol:

"is considered a cumulative poison
due to the low rate of excretion once it is absorbed.
In the body, methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and
formic acid; both of these metabolites are toxic." (8)....

Recently the toxic role of formaldehyde (in methanol toxicity) has been
questioned (34).  No skeptic can overlook the fact that, metabolically,
formaldehyde must be formed as an intermediate to formic acid
production (54).

Formaldehyde has a high reactivity which may be why it
has not been found in humans or other primates during methanol
poisioning (59)....

If formaldehyde is produced from methanol and does have a reasonable
half life within certain cells in the poisoned organism the chronic
toxicological ramifications could be grave.

Formaldehyde is a known
carcinogen (57) producing squamous-cell carcinomas by inhalation
exposure in experimental animals (22).  The available epidemiological
studies do not provide adequate data for assessing the carcinogenicity
of formaldehyde in man (22, 24, 57).

However, reaction of formaldehyde
with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in irreversible
denaturation that could interfere with DNA replication and result in
mutation (37)...."

Dr. Woodrow C. Monte  Aspartame: methanol, and the public health.
Journal of Applied Nutrition 1984;  36 (1):  42-54.
(62 references)   Professsor of Food Science
Director of the Food Science and Nutrition Laboratory
Arizona State University,  Tempe, Arizona 85287
6411 South River Drive #61 Tempe, Arizona 85283-3337
602-965-6938    woody.monte at asu.edu [now retired in New Zealand]

Life Sci 1991;48(11):1031-41
The toxicity of methanol.
Tephly TR.  [a notable pro-aspartame scientist]
Department of Pharmacology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242.

Methanol toxicity in humans and monkeys is characterized by a latent
period of many hours followed by a metabolic acidosis and
ocular toxicity. This is not observed in most lower animals. The
metabolic acidosis and blindness is apparently due to formic acid
accumulation in humans and monkeys, a feature not seen in lower

The accumulation of formate is due to a deficiency in
formate metabolism which is, in turn, related, in part, to low hepatic
tetrahydrofolate (H4 folate). An excellent correlation between
hepatic H4 folate and formate oxidation rates has been shown within and
across species. Thus, humans and monkeys possess low
hepatic H4 folate levels, low rates of formate oxidation and
accumulation of formate after methanol. Formate, itself, produces
blindness in monkeys in the absence of metabolic acidosis. In addition
to low hepatic H4 folate concentrations, monkeys and humans
also have low hepatic 10-formyl H4 folate dehydrogenase levels, the
enzyme which is the ultimate catalyst for conversion of formate
to carbon dioxide. This review presents the basis for the role of folic
acid-dependent reactions in the regulation of methanol toxicity.
Publication Types:  Review   Review, Academic    PMID: 1997785

page 1035 "In the past, formaldehyde has often been suggested as the
methanol metabolite which produces toxicity (34,35).  Today, a great
deal of information is available concerning its lack of such a role.
The presence of elevated formaldehyde levels in body fluids or tissues
following methanol administration has not been observed.
No formaldehyde has been detected in blood, urine or tissues obtained
from methanol-treated animals (36,37) and, in methanol-poisoned humans,
formaldehyde increases have not been observed....
About 85% of a low dose of 14C-formaldehyde [radioactive label] is
excreted as pulmonary 14CO2 (49,50)....."

49. Biochem. Pharmacol. 13: 1137-1142 (1964).
The metabolic fate of formaldehyde-C14 intraperitoneally administered
to the rat.  
W. Brock Neely
Biochemical Research Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan

In one rat, a 60.5 mg/kg dose = 2,000 mmol/kg was injected, and by 48
hours, 82.0% was in the exhaled air as CO2 and 13.9 % was in the urine
= total 95.9% excreted, so 4 % was retained in the body.  Trocho (1998)
put aspartame in the stomachs of rats, and found formaldehyde adducts
in liver, kidneys, brain, and retinas.

50.  Xenobiotica 1982 Feb;12(2):119-24
Formaldehyde metabolism by the rat: a re-appraisal.
Mashford PM, Jones AR.
Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Sidney, Australia

Six rats were injected with a 4 mg/kg dose = 133 mmol/kg, and by 48
hours, 82% was in the exhaled air as CO2, and 7.5% in the urine = total
89.5% excreted, so 10.5% was retained in the body.

If 10% of the 7.8 mg EPA daily limit for methanol in drinking water,
most of which would promptly metabolized into formaldehyde, were to
be retained in the body as formaldehyde, that would be .78 mg, in
contrast to 10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde
in drinking water, which would be 0.2 mg, about 40 times less.
This suggests a contradiction between the EPA limits for methanol and
formaldehyde, which in turn suggests that this important topic is not
as yet well understood-- the EPA methanol limit may be far too high.

J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.
Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
Dept. of Biochemistry, Searle Laboratories, 
Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680
They found that about 70% of the radioactive methanol in aspartame put
into the stomachs of 3 to 7 kg monkeys was eliminated within a day as
carbon dioxide in exhaled air and as water in the urine: page 1458 
"That fraction not so excreted (about 30%) was converted to body
constituents through the one-carbon metabolic pool."  They did not
mention that this meant that about 30% of the methanol must transform
into formaldehyde and then into formic acid, much of which must remain
as toxic products in all parts of the body.  This study did not monitor
long-term use of aspartame.

The low oral dose of aspartame and for methanol was 0.068 mmol/kg,
about 1 part per million [ppm] of the acute toxicity level of 2,000
mg/kg, 67,000 mmol/kg, used by McMartin (1979).  Two L daily use of
diet soda provides 123 mg methanol, 2  mg/kg for a 60 kg person, a dose
of 67 mmole/kg, a thousand times more than the dose in this study.
By eight hours excretion of the dose in air and urine had leveled off
at 67.1 +-2.1% as CO2 in the exhaled air and 1.57+-0.32% in the urine,
so 68.7 % was excreted, and 31.3% was retained. [This data is the
average of 4 monkeys.] 

aspartame, methanol, formaldehyde, formate toxicity on rat cells:
Oyama, Akaike, et al, Jan 2002: Murray 11.7.2 rmforall
"While methanol and formate did not affect cell viability in the
physiological pH range, formaldehyde at 1-3 mmol/L started to induce
cell death. Further increase in formaldehyde concentration produced a
dose-dependent decrease in cell viability.
Formaldehyde at 1 mmol/L or more greatly reduced cellular content of
glutathione, possibly increasing cell vulnerability to oxidative

This study admitted one datum that showed accumulation of formaldehye
in the midbrain from an acute toxicity dose of methanol, and widespread
accumulation of formic acid in five tissues.

Biochemical Pharmcacology 1979: 28; 645-649.
Lack of a role for formaldehyde in methanol poisoning in the monkey.
Kenneth E. McMartin, Gladys Martin-Amat, Patricia E. Noker
and Thomas R. Tephly
The Toxicology Center, Dept. of Pharmacology,
University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242  

Abstract [not given in PubMed]:  [My comments are in square braclets.]
Methanol was administered [by nasogastric tube] either to untreated
cynomolgus monkeys [2-3.5 kg] or to a folate-deficient cynomolgus
monkey which exhibits exceptional sensitivity to the toxic effects of
Marked formic acid accumulation in the blood and in body fluids and
tissues was observed.
No formaldehyde accumulation was observed in the blood and no
formaldehyde was detected in the urine, cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous
humor, liver, kidney, optic nerve, and brain in these monkeys at a time
when marked metabolic acidosis and other characteristics of methanol
poisoning were observed.
Following intravenous infusion into the monkey, formaldehyde was
rapidly eliminated from the blood with a half-life of about 1.5 min and
formic acid levels promptly increased in the blood.  
Since formic acid accumulation accounted for the metabolic acidosis and
since ocular toxicity essentially identical to that produced in
methanol poisoning has been described after formate treatment, the
predominant role of formic acid as the major metabolic agent for
methanol toxicity is certified.
Also, results suggest that formaldehyde is not a major factor in the
toxic syndrome produced by methanol in the monkey.

[So, this is an acute toxicity study, with little relevance for chronic
long-term, low-level exposure.

"It is now generally accepted that the toxicity of methanol is due to
the formation of toxic metabolites (1,2), either formaldehyde or formic

Monkeys, like people, are susceptible to methanol toxicity.

This team cites their six previous methanol in monkey studies, from
1975 to 1977.

The report is difficult to understand, since the three monkeys were
treated differently, and different assays were used.
Monkey A was folate-deficient and thus highly vulnerable to methanol
toxicity.  This means that the large number of people who are
folate-deficient will also be more vulnerable.  Blood, urine, and
tissue samples were studied 12 hours after the methanol dose of 2,000
mg/kg, when symptoms were visible.  Formaldehyde [FM] had decreased in
blood from .068 to .038 mmol/L.  Note that Oyama, Akaike, et al in 2002
found that 1 mmol/L formaldehyde levels damaged rat cells-- 14 times
higher than the initial spike of .068 nmol/L in blood formaldehyde.

For people, 11% of aspartame (1120 mg in 2L diet soda, 5.6 12-oz
cans) is 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol), immediately released into the
body after drinking (unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in
molecules inside many fruits), then quickly transformed into
formaldehyde, which in turn becomes aspartic acid, both of which in
time become carbon dioxide and water-- however, about 30% of the
methanol remains in the body as cumulative durable toxic metabolites of
formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily, a 1.1 gm monthly.

For the average 60-kg person, the daily dose of methanol from 2 L of
diet soda is 2 mg/kg. To create a rough estimate, we imagine the whole
body to be 60 kg water-- then the daily dose of methanol would be 2
mg/L, about 67 mmol/L, quickly metabolized into formaldehyde and then
into formic acid. The formaldehyde dose would temporarily be about 67
times more than the lowest level of 1 mmol/L that Oyama found hurt rat
cells. This is a very rough estimate, since the formaldehyde
concentrates in many tissues.  Toxicity would result from accumulation
of a daily fraction of the methanol as formaldehyde and formic acid
metabolites, reacted with body chemicals. If 30% of the daily methanol
dose is retained in this way, then that would be .6 mg/kg  daily
accumulation, 18 mg/kg monthly = 18 ppm.  

Formaldehyde adducts concentrate in the brain, liver, kidneys, and
retinas, according to the Trocho study on aspartame-fed rats. So,
symptoms would evolve in these organs. The amount of accumulated
formaldehyde can only grow with daily exposure.  It is reasonable to
surmise that the body's defenses will deteriorate, and allergic
sensitivity will grow. Some heavy users report an actual addiction. 
Those who quit often report fast recurrence of symptoms upon
inadvertent reexposure to small amounts, such as the 6-8 mg aspartame
in a stick of chewing gum.

The assay used was the chromatropic acid method, with a detection limit
of .025 mmol/L. None of the five tissues showed any formaldehyde with
this assay, except the midbrain, 0.14 mmol/kg wet weight tissue [units
converted from their 0.14 micromole/gm]-- just 1.5 times the detection
limit of .09 mmol/kg wet tissue weight (given on p. 648).
[Since 1 kg of water is 1 L, 1 mmol/kg is equivalent to 1 mmol/L.]

Meanwhile, the blood formate level rose by 12 hours from .180 to
10.02 mEq/L.  [I assume that a mEq is equivalent to a mmol-- let
me know if I'm wrong.]  The formate detection limits for the assays
were not given in this report.  The formate level in the vitreous humor
of the eye was 7.90 mEq/L.  It is well known that formate is
extremely damaging to the eye.  For unexplained reasons, formate levels
in the five tissues were not measured.

After 12 hours, the urine formaldehyde level was below detection level,
while urine formate was 115.80 mEq/L--  so much of the
formaldehyde had been converted into formic acid, another cumulative,
potent toxin. 

"In the presence of high formate values and definitive evidence of
toxicity in methanol-poisoned monkeys, no measurable formaldehyde was
found in the body tissues that were tested."

It is reasonable to surmise that more sensitive assays would have
found formaldehyde and formate bound to and reacted with a variety of
cellular substances in all tissues-- just as the 1998 Trocho study

Often, pro-aspartame studies have titles and summaries that are not
supported by a close study of the details:
flawed test for aspartame DNA damage: Jeffrey & Williams 2000: Murray:
11.20.2 rmforall

Monkeys B and C were normal, not extra vulnerable to methanol, and were
given 3,000 mg/kg methanol, and samples taken at 18 hr.  Formaldehyde
was detected only in the blood of Monkey B, while formate was found in
8 and 10, respectively, of the 10 fluid and tissue samples in Monkeys B
and C.  For instance, the lowest value of formate, except for zero-time
blood, for each monkey was in the midbrain, 2.16 mmol/kg for
Monkey B (24 times the detection limit for the chromatropic acid
method) and 1.02 mmol/kg (1.3 times the detection for the dimedon
method) for Monkey C.  This shows accumulation of formate in liver,
kidney, optic nerve, cerebrum, and midbrain. ]

"Thus, whereas one can associate formate intimately with ocular
toxicity in the monkey, no association of formaldehyde with ocular
toxicity can be made at this time.  It is not possible to completely
eliminate formaldehyde as a toxic intermediate becasue formaldehyde
could be formed slowly within cells and interfere with normal cellular
function without ever obtaining levels that were detectable in body

"Acknowledgements-- This research was supported by NIH grant GM 19420
and GM 12675."  [not funded by the industry]

Rich Murray: Professional House Doctors: Singer:  EPA: CPSC:
formaldehyde toxicity 6.10.1 rmforall

Murray: Wilson: CIIN: EPA: Gold:  Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham:
formaldehyde toxicity  8.22.2 rmforall

Rich Murray: 18 recent formaldehyde toxicity [Comet assay] abstracts
6.25.1 rmforall

Rich Murray: Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
aspartame toxicity 6.4.1 rmforall

Rich Murray: Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
aspartame toxicity 6.4.1 rmforall

Rich Murray, MA    Room For All    rmforall at att.net
1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe  NM  87505 USA   505-986-9103

aspartame: methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid toxicity:
brief review: Murray 11.9.2 rmforall

for 892 posts in a public searchable archive

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/862    long review

RTM: FDA: objections to neotame approval 8.3.2 rmforall  38 pages

http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html  5-page review
Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
Townsend Letter  2000 Jan;  HJRobertsMD at aol.com
http://www.sunsentpress.com/    sunsentpress at aol.com
Sunshine Sentinel Press  P.O.Box 17799  West Palm Beach, FL 33416
800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

1038-page medical text   "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
published May 30  2001    $ 85.00 postpaid    data from 1200 cases
available at  http://www.amazon.com
over 600 references from standard medical research
http://www.aspartameispoison.com/contents.html    34 chapters

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