bioavialable lead (Pb+2) at shooting ranges--perhaps it can enter
groundwater and contaminate soil. W. Stansley and D. Roscoe of New Jersey
Fish, Game and Wildlife would be good persons to contact for more help in
this matter (address below).
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1996 Feb;30(2):220-6
The uptake and effects of lead in small mammals and frogs at a trap and
Stansley W, Roscoe DE
New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Lebanon 08833, USA.
This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of
lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in
a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 micrograms/g dry
weight. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and depressed ALAD activities
in small mammals and frogs indicate that some of the lead deposited at the
site is bioavailable. Mean tissue lead concentrations (micrograms/g dry
wt.) in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at the range liver = 4.98,
kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5- to 64-fold relative
to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations
in the only shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda) captured at the range
(liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35- to 1038-fold.
Femur lead concentrations in green frogs (Rana clamitans) at the range
(1,728 micrograms/g) were elevated nearly 1000-fold, and the lead
concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 micrograms/g) was elevated
67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P
= 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P <
0.001). Hematological and histopathological lesions associated with lead
toxicosis were observed in some animals. Hemoglobin concentrations were
reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly
affected in mice or frogs. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the
renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that
were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also
evident in one of the mice. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range
and control mice. Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake
in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate
in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food
chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate
PMID: 8593083, UI: 96164550
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1992 Nov;49(5):640-7
Lead contamination and mobility in surface water at trap and skeet ranges.
Stansley W, Widjeskog L, Roscoe DE
New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Lebanon 08833.
PMID: 1392301, UI: 93005256
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1989 Jul-Aug;18(4):617-22
Effect of soil pollution with metallic lead pellets on lead bioaccumulation
and organ/body weight alterations in small mammals.
Using small mammals as bioindicators, the bioavailable status and
ecotoxicity of lead was investigated in an acidic sandy soil environment
polluted with metallic lead pellets from shotgun ammunition. Average
concentrations of lead in kidney, liver and bone tissue of wood mice
(Apodemus sylvaticus), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), and shrews
(Sorex araneus) were strongly elevated, compared to tissue levels of
conspecifics collected from an adjacent unpolluted area. All shrews and
some bank voles collected from the shooting range exceeded the critical
renal Pb concentration of 25 micrograms/g dry weight, considered diagnostic
of lead intoxication in mammals. The geometric mean renal Pb concentration
in shrews was 270 micrograms/g dry weight, with an upper range of more than
1,000 micrograms/g. The population of shrews and bank voles from the
shooting range also showed a significantly increased average relative
kidney weight (kidney-to-body weight ratio), which is indicative of lead
poisoning. The results suggest that metallic lead pellets deposited in an
acidic sandy soil are transformed to a chemical form of lead, probably
Pb2+, which is toxic to organisms and which can readily enter the
terrestrial food chain.
PMID: 2673067, UI: 89373116
A risk assessment for consumers of mourning doves.
Burger J, Kennamer RA, Brisbin IL Jr, Gochfeld M
Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution, Nelson Biological Laboratories,
Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082, USA.
Recreational and subsistence hunters and anglers consume a wide range of
species, including birds, mammals, fish and shellfish, some of which
represent significant exposure pathways for environmental toxic agents.
This study focuses on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Savannah River
Site (SRS), a former nuclear weapons production facility in South Carolina.
The potential risk of contaminant intake from consuming mourning doves
(Zenaida macroura), the most popular United States game bird, was examined
under various risk scenarios. For all of these scenarios we used the mean
tissue concentration of six metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, selenium,
chromium, manganese) and radiocesium, in doves collected on and near SRS.
We also estimated risk to a child consuming doves that had the maximum
contaminant level. We used the cancer slope factor for radiocesium, the
Environmental Protection Agencies Uptake/Biokinetic model for lead, and
published reference doses for the other metals. As a result of our risk
assessments we recommend management of water levels in contaminated
reservoirs so that lake bed sediments are not exposed to use by gamebirds
and other terrestrial wildlife. Particularly, measures should be taken to
insure that the hunting public does not have access to such a site. Our
data also indicate that doves on popular hunting areas are exposed to
excess lead, suggesting that banning lead shot for doves, as has been done
for waterfowl, is desirable.
PMID: 9853392, UI: 99070504
J Wildl Dis 1993 Oct;29(4):577-81
Blood lead concentrations of waterfowl from unhunted and heavily
hunted marshes of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada.
Daury RW, Schwab FE, Bateman MC
Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Blood lead concentrations of juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes)
sampled in unhunted sanctuaries of Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward
Island (PEI), Canada, usually were < 30 parts per billion (ppb). Based on
gizzard content analyses of juvenile American black ducks from hunted
areas, eight (24%) of 33 flightless birds contained ingested lead shot.
Blood lead concentrations were > or = 100 ppb in seven of eight juveniles
with ingested shot; thus we adopted blood lead concentrations 100 ppb as
our threshold indicating exposure to non-background lead. The proportion of
both American black ducks and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) with
elevated blood lead concentrations (> 100 ppb) exceeded 5% in hunted areas
sampled in NS and PEI combined. The Canadian Wildlife Service draft policy
is to consider replacing lead shot with non-toxic shot for waterfowl and
snipe hunting if 5% of American black ducks exceed a blood lead
concentration of 200 ppb. American black ducks significantly (P < 0.05)
exceeded this threshold but ring-necked ducks did not. The source of lead
in hunted areas may have been lead shot; we recommend that it be eliminated
and replaced by an acceptable non-toxic shot for waterfowl hunting. Twenty
four (96%) of 25 of American black ducks overwintering in Sullivans Pond,
Dartmouth, NS, contained elevated (> 100 ppb) blood lead concentrations and
19 (76%) had detrimental concentrations (> 200 ppb). We believe that the
source of lead at Sullivans Pond was automobile emissions.
PMID: 8258857, UI: 94081526
Acta Radiol 1988 Nov-Dec;29(6):745-6
Blood lead levels in patients with lead shot retained in the appendix.
Madsen HH, Skjodt T, Jorgensen PJ, Grandjean P
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark.
Seven patients with one or two lead shots retained in the appendix were
identified by radiography. For each case, two sex- and age-matched control
patients without lead shot in the appendix were found. None of the 7
patients with lead shot in the appendix had blood lead levels (median 0.55
mumol/l) approaching the toxic levels, but they averaged almost twice the
levels of the controls (median 0.29 mumol/l). Thus, lead shots may add to
individual lead exposures, and blood lead analysis should be performed, at
least when more than a few lead shots are present.
PMID: 3190952, UI: 89050687
J Wildl Dis 1987 Apr;23(2):273-8
Toxic lead exposure in the urban rock dove.
DeMent SH, Chisolm JJ Jr, Eckhaus MA, Strandberg JD
Thirteen adult urban rock doves (Columba livia), 12 captured alive and one
found dead, were studied from the Baltimore zoo. The mean concentration of
lead in the blood for the 12 live birds was 184.5 +/- 531.2 (range
10.5-1,870 micrograms/dl). Three of the 13 birds with high measured blood
and tissue lead concentrations were found at necropsy with lead shot
pellets in their gizzards. Correlations were not found between
concentrations of lead in the blood and body weight or hematocrit.
Conversely, high correlations were noted between concentrations of lead in
the blood and measured liver and kidney concentrations (r = 0.946, P less
than 0.01; r = 0.993, P less than 0.01, respectively). Numbers of
intranuclear acid-fast inclusions per 10 consecutive fields (100x oil
immersion lens) correlated well with measured kidney lead concentrations (r
= 0.990, P less than 0.001).
PMID: 3586205, UI: 87226526
J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982 Dec 1;181(11):1299-301
Effect of hunters' switch from lead to steel shot on potential for oral
lead poisoning in ducks.
Calle PP, Kowalczyk DF, Dein FJ, Hartman FE
Mallards and black ducks (n = 409) killed by hunters during the 1980 and
1981 hunting seasons in Pennsylvania (Susquehanna River and Crawford
County) were examined to evaluate the effectiveness of regulations that
converted the studied areas from lead to steel shotgun pellets in
1977-1978. Gizzards were examined for ingested lead and steel shot, and
liver specimens were analyzed for lead. Since there is no evidence to
suggest that ducks preferentially ingest steel or lead shot, it was
concluded that ducks with steel shot would have contained lead shot.
Therefore, we concluded that the conversion to steel shotgun pellets
accounted for the decreased prevalence of ingested lead shot from 11.2% to
5.6%. Toxic concentrations of lead (greater than or equal to 6 ppm, wet
weight) in the liver were found in 6 of 23 ducks that contained lead shot,
whereas only 2 of 386 ducks without lead pellets had toxic concentrations.
It was concluded that the conversion to steel shotgun pellets in the
studied areas probably has decreased the exposure of ducks to lead shot,
thereby decreasing the potential for lead poisoning.
PMID: 7174448, UI: 83082348
Dr. Charles A. Miller III, rellim at mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu
Dept. Environmental Health Sciences, SL29
Tulane-Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research and
Tulane Univ. School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
1430 Tulane Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70112
(504)585-6942, fax (504)584-1726
Bionet.toxicology newsgroup: http://www.bio.net/hypermail/TOXICOLOGY