Nicole nglowack at
Tue Oct 1 10:00:46 EST 1996

A first injection with Freund's Complete Adjuvant (mineral oil 
plus mycobacterium) followed by boosters with Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant 
(just mineral oil) have worked well for my laboratory.  Do not vaccinate 
more than once with Freund's Complete as  it will cause a severe local 
hyperimmune reaction including open sores and other nasty effects for the 

We have also used aluminum hydroxide (alum, Al(OH)3).  This adjuvant 
comes in different forms.  The gel has worked well for us in the 
past.  We typically a 1% alum mixture.  High concentrations of 
protein in this adjuvant will cause clogging of the needle.  If you 
are using 100ug/ml or higher protein concentrations, use a larger needle 
and make your vaccine fresh.  This adjuant mixes readilly with water and 
will only slightly dissociate over time, just vortex for a few seconds and 
you're ready to go.

There are also some commercial (patented?) adjuvants.

Nicole Glowacki
Medical Oncology
University of Wisconsin
Comprehensive Cancer Center

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