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What Genomes have been Sequenced?

Keith Robison robison1 at husc10.harvard.edu
Fri Oct 9 07:51:07 EST 1992

lip at s1.gov (Loren I. Petrich) writes:

>	The subject should be self-explanatory. And if sequences are
>not available, what about maps of all reading frames?

Funny you should ask -- I just got back from "Genome Mapping and
Sequencing IV".  First, the prehistory.

Currently available complete sequences:
	Plasmids -- oodles
	Bacteriophage -- lots, including M13, T7, and lambda
	Eukaryotic viruses -- polio, vaccinia, HIV 
	Chloroplast -- liverwort, tobacco, rice, beechdrops
	Plant mitochondrial -- liverwort (Chlamydomonas? -- I'm not sure)
	Animal mitochondrial -- lots, including human, mouse, cow,
				sea urchin, several insects, several nematodes.

I think that covers most of the important ones -- hope I didn't omit 
anybody's favorites

Anyway, current statuses for some major sequencing efforts.

	E.coli -- about 50% complete
	Mycobacterium leprae -- about 1% complete, but most during last year
	Mycoplasma capricolum -- about 1% complete, but most of
				 that done in last 6 months.

If current plans hold, all three bacteria will be done in about 3 years
(I know, that doesn't quite fit the above arithmetic).

	Saccharomyces -- one chromosome done, two more almost done,
			 completion before end of decade.

	C.elegans -- first megabase of contiguous sequence almost done

	Drosophila -- largest reported contiguous sequence is about 80 Kbp

	Mammals -- several 100 Kb segments done in human and mouse,
		   but there's lots left to do.

	Arabidopsis  -- a few cosmid-sized (50Kb) segments done.

Mapping is further along.  Complete maps exist for many bacteria and
C.elegans (and Saccharomyces?).  A map for Schizosaccharomyces is near
completion (I think -- nobody from that community spoke).  Large maps
of human Y (complete) and 21 (long arm) chromosomes were just published.

	So, we have to wait another three years-ish to get the first complete
cellular genome.  And without technological improvements, mammalian
genomes are going to finished in the distant future -- it would take
over 100,000 worker years to do one mammalian genome at current rates.

Keith Robison
Harvard University
Department of Cellular & Developmental Biology
Department of Genetics / HHMI

robison at ribo.harvard.edu 

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