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FCARR at delphi.com FCARR at delphi.com
Mon Sep 26 20:32:35 EST 1994

Quoting gordonr from a message in bionet.molbio.evolution
   [ Dear Foster:
   [ On 25 Sep 1994 FCARR at delphi.com wrote:
   [ >     *If one where to analyze where most of the
   [ >     5% difference in DNA sequence exists between homo sapiens  and
   [ >     chimpanzees then you would find that it is not in the unique
   [ >     coding sequences but in the repetitive DNA....
   [ >     *There are also other scientists who study endogenous 
   [retroviruses, >     who believe that they play a major evolutionary 
   [role. *I hypothesize >     that the presence  of some repetitive 
   [elements represents the genetic >     fossil record of prior viral 
   [symbiogenic relationships which were >     responsible for the 
   [development of new species. *Please provide references for above.

*1. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution;
    edited by Steve Jones, Robert Martin, and David Pilbeam
    Cambridge University Press 1992; reprinted 1994
    See chapters; 
    8.2 Chromosomal evolution in primates, by J. Marks
    8.4 Reconstructing of human evolution, by Morris Goodman
    8.5 DNA-DNA hybidization in the study of primate evolution, by C.G Sibley
    8.6 Human evolution: the evidence from DNA sequencing, by A.E Friday
     Although none of these authors directly state the above; it can be
 deduced to be probably true from the information that they provide.
 In particular; please not that the method of DNA-DNA hybidization published
 by C.G Sibley involves the removal of repetitive sequences prior to 
 determining the delta T 50  value of 1.6% difference between chimpanzees
 and humans. If this class of sequences were not removed then the value
would be much higher as can be deduced from the comments in the other
cited references.  Another particularly important point is the uniquely
human C-bands which are amplified repetitive DNA on Chromosomes 1,9,16, and
Y. as well as the absence of human satellite class II DNA in chimpanzees
( I am guessing from the models that they provide about 4 percent of
the total human DNA and thus at least4% of the difference between the DNA 
between humans and chimpanzees). I am also attempting to find other references
relating the the exact frequency differences of specific repetitive
DNA families with the aim of combining this data into a model
of the major genetic differences between human and apes with correlations
to physical and mental attributes. An example of such a reference is
Zhu ZB; Jian B; Volanakis JE.
   Ancestry of SINE-R.C2 a human-specific retroposon.
   Human Genetics, 1994 May, 93(5); 545-51

Please e-mail me any other potential references.

*2. Shih A; Coutavas EE; Rush MG
    Evolutionary implications of primate endogenous retroviruses.
    Virology, 1991 Jun, 182(2): 495-502
*3. The reference is right here on this internet posting.
    I have not published my ideas via a peer review journal yet
    because I am still accumulating data which will provide
    evidence for other ideas which I have concerning a 
    Cosmic role in evolution.

Foster P. Carr MD

Rainbow V 1.03 for Delphi

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