Susan Jane Hogarth <sjhogart at unity.ncsu.edu> wrote:
>> Periannan Senapathy wrote:
> > I think that you will be interested in a book that I have recently
> > published by the title "Independent Birth of Organisms," in
> > which I propose a new theory as an alternative to the conventional
> > theory of evolution.
>> This is very interesting, but I have a few questions.
>> > Organisms have not descended from a common ancestor, but
> > rather from millions of independently born organisms, whose
> > genomes were all assembled from a common gene-pool from
> > a single small primordial pond by using the common biochemicals,
> > genes and molecular biological mechanisms.
>> "biological mechanisms"? So these primordial genes were in organisms?
Please note that I said "molecular biological mechanisms." I meant
prebiotic molecular mechanisms of DNA coding, DNA-protein
interactions, and protein/enzyme functionalities.
> > Computer studies
> > of the genes of animals and plants that are split into exons (coding
> > regions) and introns (junk DNA) show that such genes would
>> I object to the term "junk DNA" for introns. I thought there was lots of
> evidence for their function in regulation.
You are not correct in this. Only very rarely do introns have
> > Modern molecular biology provides ample evidence for the new
> > theory. Recent discoveries of many unique genes in distinct
> > organisms that are totally absent in other organisms provide the
> > best evidence.
>> Example, please? How do we know they aren't present elsewhere?
One example is the blood plasma proteins of the vertebrates
(more than 600 of them), which are totally absent in all the
invertebrates. The proteins of the generically called "blood"
of different invertebrates have, on the other hand, nothing
to do with the blood of the vertebrates. Also, the "blood"
of the different groups of invertebrates (the creatures
belonging to the different phyla, for example) are unrelatable.
Please note that these proteins in the blood (or the circulating
fluid) of a creature are synthesized by many organs and tissues
within a creature. Moreover, the cells and proteins of the immune
system, blood clotting system, respiratory system, and digestion,
and preception etc. are also unrelatable among these distinct
creatures. The only way one can explain this scenario of the
presence of both essentially the same genes and utterly unrelated
unique genes in widely distinct organisms is by the mechanism of
the multiple genome assembly from a common pool of genes from a
primordial pond. For more details of molecular evidence of my
theory, please see my book Independent Birth of Organisms,
page 376-451 (http://www.fullfeed.com/genome/), and my replies
to the previous Internet discussion (http://www.mattox.com/genome/).
> > The sudden appearance of almost all the distinct organisms
> > belonging to all the different phyla in a geological instant at the
> > base of the Cambrian period, termed the Cambrian Explosion,
> > has not been explainable by the theory of evolution. The new
> > mechanism in fact predicts this scenario.
>> I'm confused - if "higher taxa" have been around since very early, why
> is there no early fossil record for them?
Precisely! Your question is perfectly valid. Fossil record
actually shows evidence of the presence of all the higher taxa
from the very beginning of the multicellular life on earth.
When signs of multicellular life appear in the fossil record,
the conventional evolution theory demands that there be only
one original primitive creature that is supposed to be the
original ancestor of all life on earth, or, at the most few
creatures that are similar and related. But, to the absolute
contradiction of this thesis, numerous creatures that are
structurally so unique and unrelated appear almost
simultaneously at the base of the Cambrian period.
That is why this phenomenon is termed the Cambrian Explosion.
As you can see, the fossil record is totally upside down to what
one would expect based on the conventional theory of evolution.
For your information, this actually bothered Darwin so much that
he said in his Origin of Species:
"The case at present must remain inexplicable; and may be
truly urged as a valid argument against the views here entertained."
Paleontological authorities such as Stephen J Gould have elaborated
on this extensively. However, it is amazing that generally
evolutionists try to ignore this problem and sidestep this whole
issue. It makes me wonder if many people who so vigorously defend
the theory of evolution are "superficial evolutionists" who are
using incorrect assumptions of facts and truths and are comfortably
unaware of such details. Chapter 11 of my book "A New Look at the
Fossil Record" gives elaborate answers to your question.
I wonder why you have not asked if the organisms belonging to the
different phyla are really unrelatable. It will be interesting
to you to know that this phenomenon of the utter unrelatedness
of creatures in terms of their organismal structures has been
known to zoologists and evolutionary biologists for all the time
since Darwin (see for instance, Mitchell, L. G., Mutchmore, J. A.,
and Dolphin, W. D., 1988, Zoology, The Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo
Park; and Futuyma, J. D., 1986, Evolutionary Biology, Sinauer
Associates, Sunderland, MA). As you asked, all the phyla
appeared suddenly in a nearly simultaneous manner during the
Cambrian explosion which took place in a geological instant.
But, why all the creatures at the beginning of the appearance
of multicellular life on earth were so numerous, and so utterly
unrelated in terms of their organismal structures, so as to be
classified into the broadest category of all the phyla that are
ever known? Evolutionary biologists truly do not have an answer,
and authorities such as Douglas Futuyma do accept this, although
they may think that an answer may be found in the future based on
the theory of evolution. But, please realize that evolutionary
biology will never be able to answer these questions. The only
way these questions can be answered is by the multiple assembly
of genomes from a common pool of genes available in a primordial
pond during the time whenever the Cambrian explosion occurred.
And, this mechanism is able to explain all the major scenario of
life on earth clearly, without any of the problems that the
conventional theory of evolution faces.