In article <3rmlvr$ibp at whitbeck.ncl.ac.uk>, Roger Hayes writes:
>Does anyone know a non HPLC method for measuring Glutamate in biological
>fluids? Have heard of HPLc methods but have heard they are very
>Many papers using microdialysis to measure glutamate. Just a sampling of
references from my small database:
1. Brodin L, Tossman U, Ohta Y, Ungerstedt U, Grillner S (1988). The
effect of an uptake inhibitor (dihydrokainate) on endogenous excitatory
amino acids in the lamprey spinal cord as revealed by microdialysis. Brain
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2. Globus MY, Busto R, Dietrich WD, Martinez E, Valdes I, et al. (1988).
Effect of ischemia on the in vivo release of striatal dopamine, glutamate,
and gamma-aminobutyric acid studied by intracerebral microdialysis. J
Neurochem 51: 1455-1464.
3. Hovda DA, Yoshino A, Kawamata T, Katayama Y, Fineman I, et al. (1990).
The increase in local cerebral glucose utilization following fluid
percussion brain injury is prevented with kynurenic acid and is associated
with an increase in calcium. Acta Neurochir Suppl 51: 331-3.
4. Katayama Y, Becker DP, Tamura T, Hovda DA (1990). Massive increases in
extracellular potassium and the indiscriminate release of glutamate
following concussive brain injury. J Neurosurg 73: 889-900.
5. Graham SH, Shiraishi K, Panter SS, Simon RP, Faden AI (1990). Changes
in extracellular amino acid neurotransmitters produced by focal cerebral
ischemia. Neurosci Lett 110: 124-30.
6. Minson J, Chalmers J, Drolet G, Kapoor V, Llewellyn-Smith I, et al.
(1990). Central serotonergic mechanisms in cardiovascular regulation.
[Review]. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapy 1: 27-32.
7. Simpson R, Jr., Robertson CS, Goodman JC (1990). Spinal cord
ischemia-induced elevation of amino acids: extracellular measurement with
microdialysis. Neurochemical Research 15: 635-9.
8. Panter SS, Yum SW, Faden AI (1990). Alteration in extracellular amino
acids after traumatic spinal cord injury [see comments]. Annals of
Neurology 27: 96-9.
9. Skilling SR, Smullin DH, Larson AA (1990). Differential effects of C-
and N-terminal substance P metabolites on the release of amino acid
neurotransmitters from the spinal cord: potential role in nociception.
Journal of Neuroscience 10: 1309-18.
10. Globus MY, Busto R, Martinez E, Valdes I, Dietrich WD (1990). Ischemia
induces release of glutamate in regions spared from histopathologic damage
in the rat. Stroke
11. Smullin DH, Skilling SR, Larson AA (1990). Interactions between
substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, taurine and excitatory amino
acids in the spinal cord. Pain 42: 93-101.
12. Simpson R, Jr., Robertson CS, Goodman JC (1991). Segmental release of
amino acid neurotransmitters from transcranial stimulation. Neurochemical
Research 16: 89-94.
13. Simpson R, Jr., Robertson CS, Goodman JC (1991). Release of segmental
amino acid neurotransmitters in response to peripheral afferent and motor
cortex stimulation: a pilot study. Life Sciences 49: L113-8.
14. Simpson R, Jr., Robertson CS, Goodman JC, Halter JA (1991). Recovery
of amino acid neurotransmitters from the spinal cord during posterior
epidural stimulation: a preliminary study. Journal of the American
Paraplegia Society 14: 3-8.
15. Szerb JC (1991). Glutamate release and spreading depression in the
fascia dentata in response to microdialysis with high K+: role of glia.
Brain Res 542: 259-65.
16. Globus MY, Busto R, Martinez E, Valdes I, Dietrich WD, et al. (1991).
Comparative effect of transient global ischemia on extracellular levels of
glutamate, glycine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid in vulnerable and
nonvulnerable brain regions in the rat. J Neurochem 57: 470-8.
17. Liu D, Thangnipon W, McAdoo DJ (1991). Excitatory amino acids rise to
toxic levels upon impact injury to the rat spinal cord. Brain Res 547:
18. Globus MY, Ginsberg MD, Busto R (1991). Excitotoxic index--a
biochemical marker of selective vulnerability. Neurosci Lett 127: 39-42.
19. Meldrum BS, Swan JH, Leach MJ, Millan MH, Gwinn R, et al. (1992).
Reduction of glutamate release and protection against ischemic brain damage
by BW 1003C87. Brain Res 593: 1-6.
20. Kawamata T, Katayama Y, Hovda DA, Yoshino A, Becker DP (1992).
Administration of excitatory amino acid antagonists via microdialysis
attenuates the increase in glucose utilization seen following concussive
brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 12: 12-24.
21. Faden AI (1992). Dynorphin increases extracellular levels of
excitatory amino acids in the brain through a non-opioid mechanism. J
Neurosci 12: 425-9.
22. Skilling SR, Harkness DH, Larson AA (1992). Experimental peripheral
neuropathy decreases the dose of substance P required to increase
excitatory amino acid release in the CSF of the rat spinal cord.
Neuroscience Letters 139: 92-6.
23. Skilling SR, Sun X, Kurtz HJ, Larson AA (1992). Selective potentiation
of NMDA-induced activity and release of excitatory amino acids by
dynorphin: possible roles in paralysis and neurotoxicity. Brain Research
24. Sorkin LS, Westlund KN, Sluka KA, Dougherty PM, Willis WD (1992).
Neural changes in acute arthritis in monkeys. IV. Time-course of amino acid
release into the lumbar dorsal horn. Brain Research Brain Research
Reviews 17: 39-50.
25. Paleckova V, Palecek J, McAdoo DJ, Willis WD (1992). The non-NMDA
antagonist CNQX prevents release of amino acids into the rat spinal cord
dorsal horn evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation. Neuroscience Letters 148:
26. Panter SS, Faden AI (1992). Pretreatment with NMDA antagonists limits
release of excitatory amino acids following traumatic brain injury.
Neurosci Lett 136: 165-168.
27. Kapoor V, Minson J, Chalmers J (1992). Ventral medulla stimulation
increases blood pressure and spinal cord amino acid release. Neuroreport
28. Sluka KA, Westlund KN (1993). Spinal cord amino acid release and
content in an arthritis model: the effects of pretreatment with non-NMDA,
NMDA, and NK1 receptor antagonists. Brain Research 627: 89-103.
29. Sluka KA, Westlund KN (1993). An experimental arthritis model in rats:
the effects of NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on aspartate and glutamate
release in the dorsal horn. Neuroscience Letters 149: 99-102.
30. Sorkin LS, McAdoo DJ, Willis WD (1993). Raphe magnus
stimulation-induced antinociception in the cat is associated with release
of amino acids as well as serotonin in the lumbar dorsal horn. Brain
Research 618: 95-108.
31. Sorkin LS, McAdoo DJ (1993). Amino acids and serotonin are released
into the lumbar spinal cord of the anesthetized cat following intradermal
capsaicin injections. Brain Research 607: 89-98.
32. Liu D, McAdoo DJ (1993). An experimental model combining microdialysis
with electrophysiology, histology, and neurochemistry for exploring
mechanisms of secondary damage in spinal cord injury: effects of potassium.
Journal of Neurotrauma 10: 349-62.
33. Sorkin LS (1993). NMDA evokes an L-NAME sensitive spinal release of
glutamate and citrulline. Neuroreport 4: 479-82.
34. Kuwata T (1993). [Effects of the cervical spinal cord stimulation on
persistent vegetative syndrome: experimental and clinical study].
[Japanese]. No Shinkei Geka Neurological Surgery 21: 325-31.
35. Castagne V, Finot PA, Maire JC (1994). Effects of diet-induced
hyperthreoninemia. II). Tissue and extracellular amino acid levels in the
brain. Life Sciences 54: 41-8.
36. Marsala M, Sorkin LS, Yaksh TL (1994). Transient spinal ischemia in
rat: characterization of spinal cord blood flow, extracellular amino acid
release, and concurrent histopathological damage. Journal of Cerebral
Blood Flow & Metabolism 14: 604-14.
37. Rokkas CK, Helfrich L, Jr., Lobner DC, Choi DW, Kouchoukos NT (1994).
Dextrorphan inhibits the release of excitatory amino acids during spinal
cord ischemia. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 58: 312-9.