About the Retina/Aspartame

Betty Martini betty at noel.pd.org
Sat Jul 12 10:44:19 EST 1997

Dear Jill:  Your post simply said retina and I didn't know what you wanted
to know about it.  However, aspartame destroys the optic nerve
(NutraSweet).  It has wood alcohol (methanol) in it that converts to
formaldehyde and then formic acid in the retina of the eye.  this is why
there are so many retinal detachments, blindness, floaters, black spots,
etc.  Here are a number of medical reports by different doctors that can
give you some insight.

Hope this helps.


The following is a report just completed by H. J. Roberts, M.D. on
aspartame and the eye.  The corporate symbol for the NutraSweet Company
is blind Mr. Magoo:  This seems appropriate in light of the following:


It is my opinion that individuals who consume products containing
aspartame, including drugs and supplements, should avoid them when no
specific cause can be found for the eye problems:

        *  Decreased vision -- including blindness in one or both eyes
        *  Blurring, "bright-flashes", tunnel vision, "black spots"
        *  Double vision
        *  Pain in one or both eyes
        *  Decreased tears
        *  Difficulty wearing contact lens
        *  Unexplained retinal detachment and bleeding

The same precaution is reasonable for persons in whom these complaints
are due to other disorders because they could be aggravated by aspartame,
even in minimal amounts.

        *  Surgery of immature cataracts should be deferred in patients
           who consume aspartame until after abstaining from it for 1-2
           months to determine if spontaneous improvement of vision occurs.
        *  Impaired vision of diabetic patients should not be assumed to be
           due to diabetic retinopathy without such a "no aspartame test"
        *  A similar trial is warranted in persons diagnosed as having
           "macular degeneration".
        *  The diagnosis of "early multiple sclerosis" - based on
           concomitantn eye and neurologic features - should be deferred
           pending a "no aspartame test".

These corporate neutral suggestions are based on considerable observaion,
research and correspondence published in more than a score of articles and
two books.

        *  ASPARTAME (NUTRASWEET@) IS IT SAFE?  (Philadelphia, Charles Press)
           (NUTRASWEET@) (Sun Sentinel Press, P. O. Box 17799, West Palm
           Beach, Florida 33416, Telephone 1-800-814-9800:  Fax 1 407-832-

I also have reviewed these and related problems in my two-cassett talk, IS
1995 (Sunshine Sentinel Press).

These represent hard - won insights in the trenches of a medical
practice.  Patients and consumers should not be misled by the "negative"
conclusions of flawed studies sponsored by vested interests.

There is no bias or malice intended against any company, distributor,
researcher or professional who may hold contrary views.

                             THE ROLE OF ASPARTAME

Each of the components of aspartame - phenylalanine (50%); aspartic acid
(40%); the methyl ester, which promptly becomes methyl alcohol or methanol
(10%) - and their multiple breakdown products after exposure to heat or
during prolonged storage is potentially toxic to the retina and optic
nerves.  These organs are highly vulnerable to metabolic disturbances and
neurotoxins because of their unique metabolic requirements.  Methanol
causes swelling of the optic nerve and degeneration of ganglion cells in
the retina.

Particular attention is directed in this regard to (1) the formaldehyde
and formate (formic acid) that result from the breakdown of methyl
alcohol, a severe metabolic poison, and (2) the D-aspartic acid stereoisomer.

                            AN OVERVIEW

In my publications and in testimony to Congress and FDA advisory group, I
have expressed the belief that the current wholesale ingestion of
aspartame products by over half the adult population constitutes a
probable "imminent public health hazard."  My concern is bolstered by (1)
evidence that these products may play a causative or aggravating  role in
many other medical disorders (including headaches, dizziness, confusion,
memory loss, impaired hearing, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and
probably brain tumors), (2) the flawed nature of most "scientific" studies
being used to prove the alleged safety of these products, and (3) reports
of serious reactions volunteered to the FDA by over 7,300 irate consumers.

In the present context, these statistics are pertinent.

        *  In my earlier report on 551 aspartame reactors  (the data base
           is now 833), decreased vision was a major problem in 140 {25.4%),
           severe pain in 51 (8.3%), and "dry eyes" or trouble wearing
           contact lens in 48 (8.3%). Sixteen patients have lost vision
           in one or both eyes.

        *  The FDA (as of August 1995) had received complaints about a
           change in vision from 384 consumers, and "eye irritation" from 30.

These complications tend to be magnified in persons with diabetes,
hypertension, unrecognized hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), hypoglycemia
(low blood sugar reactions). reaction to MSG, treatment with aspirin and
other drugs that can irritate the optic and auditory nerves, persons who
smoke or drink alcohol, and problems associated with aging.  They become
compounded by the threat of falls and driving accidents.

I welcome reports of such reactions and results of the "no aspartame test"
for our independent registry.  A 9-page questionnaire can be obtained by
calling (407) 832-2408 or FAX (407) 832-2400.

I have also expressed concern that aspartame products might be
accelerating Alzheimer's disease.  The details appear in my
just-published book DEFENSE AGAINST ALZHEIMERS DISEASE: a rational
blueprint for prevention (Sunshine Sentinel Press; P. O. Box 17799, West
Palm Beach, Florida 1-800-814-9800  FAX 407-832-2400).

@1995 H. J. Roberts, M.D., F.A.C.P, F.C.C.P.

>From aeulenbe at ezinfo.ucs.indiana.eduSun Dec 17 14:38:03 1995
Date: Mon, 13 Nov 1995 18:16:38 -0500
From: aeulenbe <aeulenbe at ezinfo.ucs.indiana.edu>
To: betty at pd.org
Subject: dry_aspar.html

   Note: the following text was provided by Elaine Fitchpatrick and Betty
   Martini of MISSION POSSIBLE, an organization dedicated to the
   eradication of NutraSweet.
Associated Insights Concerning the Sjogren Syndrome

  The Townsend Letter for Doctors, Jan. 1994
   by H. J. Roberts, M.D., FCCP, FACA, 300-27th St., West Palm Beach, FL
   33407-5299 (407) 832-2408
     "It is of use from time to time to take stock, so to speak of our
     knowledge of a particular disease, to see exactly where we stand in
     regard to it, to inquire what conclusions the accumulated facts seem
     to point to, and to ascertain in what direction we may look for
     fruitful investigations in the future." Sir William Osler

   "Dry eyes" and associated difficulty in wearing contact lenses were
   prominent complaints offered by 56 (8.3%) of 551 aspartame reactors.
   Xerostomia (dry mouth) was a frequent concomitant. The symptoms
   promptly improved after they stopped aspartame-containing products,
   and predictably recurred on aspartame rechallenge. The concomitant
   joint pains, severe confusion, memory loss and depression also have
   clinical significance, with special reference to the Sjogren syndrome.
   The cause and management of "dry eyes" challenge ophthalmologists and
   primary care physicians. This symptom was unexpectedly and repeatedly
   encountered among patients manifesting other reactions to products
   containing aspartame, a sweetener currently being consumed by 54% of
   adults in the United States. This complaint was encountered in both
   the routine questioning of apparent aspartame reactors and a
   computerized, 9-page survey of such individuals. Many also volunteered
   difficulty in wearing contact lenses due to decreased tears, dry mouth
   (xerostomia), joint pains, confusion and memory loss - all
   specifically attributed to the use of aspartame products.

   Data were obtained from 551 persons who appeared to have systemic
   reactions to aspartame. They consisted of 160 private patients or
   aspartame reactors who were personally interviewed, and 391
   individuals who described their adverse side effects in the survey
   questionnaire...including observations after rechallenge. The names of
   the latter group were supplied by Aspartame Victims and Their Friends
   (courtesy of Mrs. Shannon Wroth), the Community Nutrition Institute
   (courtesy of Mr. Rod Leonard), and Dr. Woodrow Monte of Arizona State
   The completed questionnaires were analyzed with the assistance of the
   Management Information System staff at the Good Samaritan Hospital,
   West Palm Beach, Florida.

   Dry eyes, ocular irritation from contact lens, or both, occurred in 46
   (8.3%) aspartame reactors, In addition to the sensation of local
   discomfort and "sand" in the eyes, the eyelids of such patients tend
   to become swollen and infected, at times with loss of eyelashes.
   The causative or contributory role of aspartame was indicated by these
   clear-cut clinical correlates: (1) prompt and gratifying improvement
   of ocular and other symptoms following the cessation of aspartame,
   generally within several days; and (2) their recurrence shortly after
   resuming such products. This sequence predictably recurred after
   rechallenge with aspartame, known or inadvertent.
   These observations have been duplicated by more than a score of
   patients complaining of dry eyes in subsequent aspartame reactors.
   There were related problems. For example, a physician who consumed
   considerable diet sodas developed a type of corneal dystrophy
   generally associated with the chronic use of certain drugs (e.g.,
   Computerized correlations between aspartame-associated dry eyes, and
   "marked memory loss," "severe depression" and "severe mental
   confusion" were done on the first 362 aspartame reactors who completed
   the questionnaire. (There was a 30.8% response to the initial mailing
   of 1,177 forms.) The correlates were as follows:
     * Recent aspartame-associated dry eyes and severe depression - 18
     * Recent aspartame-associated dry eyes and marked memory loss - 20
     * Recent aspartame-associated dry eyes and severe mental confusion -
       9 (2.4%)
   Other complaints offered by the larger cohort had considerable
   significance, with particular reference to the Sjogren syndrome. They
   included excessive thirst due to dry mouth (xerostomia) in 65 (12%),
   and severe joint pains in 58 (11%). It is noteworthy that
   three-fourths of patients in this and the large series of aspartame
   reactors were women averaging 50 years, a phenomenon also encountered
   in the Sjogren syndrome.
Representative Case Reports

   Case 1 - A 47 year-old woman complained of severe dryness of the eyes
   that required one bottle of artificial tears a week. Her consumption
   of aspartame included 10-12 glasses or cups of aspartame-sweetened
   beverages, the addition of a tabletop sweetener to 3 cups of coffee in
   the morning, and considerable aspartame pudding. She also suffered
   confusion, significant memory loss, intense headaches (never
   previously a problem), impaired hearing, lightheadedness, severe
   "nervousness," muscle cramps, and depressions with suicidal thoughts.
   These symptoms markedly improved after stopping aspartame, and
   disappeared within several weeks. She no longer required artificial
   tears. Such dramatic improvement enabled her to travel abroad several
   weeks later with her church group for relief work.
   Case 2 - A 36 year-old businesswoman complained of recent difficulty
   wearing contact lenses. She had been consuming considerable amounts of
   soft drinks and gum containing aspartame. These and other symptoms -
   including lightheadedness, headache and leg cramps - abated within two
   weeks after all aspartame products were avoided.
   Case 3 - a 61 year-old female court reporter developed dry eyes and
   bilateral blurring of vision. Other recent complaints included marked
   memory loss, severe headache, dizziness, extreme irritability, and
   atypical facial and joint pains. As a result, she had been making many
   errors at work. The patient improved "immediately" when she ran out of
   aspartame-containing beverages, and resumed regular sodas. She
   therefore deduced that aspartame products had been causing her
   problems. Her previous daily consumption included 4 cans of aspartame
   soft drinks, 2 glasses of aspartame hot chocolate, and 6 packets of an
   aspartame tabletop sweetener.

   The unexpected associated of aspartame use and dry eyes offers clues
   concerning this symptom and the Sjogren syndrome. Other problems
   encountered in aspartame reactors, especially dry mouth and joint
   pains provide related insights.
   Two reactors who complained of "thick saliva" developed enlargement
   and tenderness of the parotid glands. The secretory structures of the
   salivary glands presumably had been affected by aspartame, as well as
   the lacrimal glands. The affinity of aspartame for salivary glands
   were demonstrated experimentally by the prompt uptake of
   isotopically-labelled aspartame.
   The Sjogren or sicca syndrome affects an estimated 2% of the adult
   population. The reduction or absence of lacrimal and salivary
   secretions results in dry eyes and dryness of the mouth. (The
   diagnostic lipstick-on-teeth sign consists of lipstick adhering to the
   upper front teeth). This disorder is presently regarding as a chronic
   autoimmune disorder resulting from lymphocyte-mediated destruction of
   these glands and changes in the points.
   A vicious cycle is likely to ensue if considerable
   aspartame-containing beverages are consumed because of the intense
   thirst created by severe dryness of the mouth. Weiffenbach et al.
   demonstrated that taste impairment is not a necessary consequence of
   salivary gland dysfunction among patients with "dry mouth" caused b
   the chronic absence of saliva. Accordingly, such individuals may come
   to prefer the taste of aspartame in satisfying their chronic thirst,
   with perpetuation of the sicca syndrome.
   The systemic and central nervous system sequelae of the Sjogren
   syndrome underscore the potential importance of these findings.
   Cognitive impairment and lamenting features have been reported by
   one-fourth of Sjogren patients. Severe confusion and memory loss also
   were noted in 157 (28.5%) aspartame reactors in the present series.
   Indeed, many reactors in their third and fourth decades asked, "Could
   I be developing early Alzheimer's disease?" The prompt and impressive
   regression of their confusion and memory impairment after abstinence
   from aspartame proved reassuring.
   Several phenomenon may explain cerebral dysfunction associated with
   aspartame use. They include flooding of the brain with large amounts
   of phenylalanine (50% of the aspartame molecule), disturbances of
   neurotransmitters (especially dopamine), other effects of its three
   chemical components (phenylalanine, aspartic acid, methanol),
   methanol-induced cerebral edema, and glucopenia due to increased
   insulin release and concomitant decreased food intake in an attempt to
   lose weight.

The following is a letter presented before the U.S. Senate
hearings on NutraSweet. It was written by Dr. Margan B.
Raiford, M.D., Ps, Msc Med. Ophthalmology (Raiford 1987):

     "I had the opportunity, in Atlanta, Ga., to see
     the effects of methyl alcohol toxicity in 1952-
     1953 which resulted in visual damage to the optic
     nerves and retina in over 300 cases and the deaths
     of over 30 persons.
     "I examined Shannon Roth on July 7, 1986, along
     with several other patients [65 cases as of July
     10, 1986 (Roberts 1990, page 136)]. I observed
     evidence of effects in her eye and the eyes of the
     other patients that were comparable to the effects
     observed in the patients who suffered methyl
     alcohol toxicity in 1952-1953.
     "There was damage in the central fibers, 225,000
     of the total 137,000,000 optic nerve fibers
     (resulting in optic nerve atrophy) in her case,
     which would be comparable to that observed from
     patients suffering methyl alcohol toxicity. The
     extent of damage to these fibers would explain
     partial to total blindness.
     . . . .
     "But in the kind of chronic low dose exposure to
     methyl alcohol experienced by Shannon Roth (in
     NutraSweet consumption) and other NutraSweet
     consumers, it is likely that they would experience
     the impact on the optic nerve differently in each
     "The important point is that the damage observed
     in Shannon Roth's eye was identical to the damage
     I observed repeatedly in the eyes of individuals
     whose eyes have been damaged by methyl alcohol

Raiford, Morgan B., 1987. Letter from Dr. Morgan B. Raiford
  to the Office of Senator Howard Metzenbaum. The statement
  was put in the record before the U.S. Senate Committee on
  Labor and Human Resources, November 3, 1987 regarding
  "NutraSweet Health and Safety Concerns." Document # Y 4.L
  11/4:S.HR6.100, page 517-518.

Roberts, H.J. 1990. "Aspartame (NutraSweet¨):Is It Safe?" by
  H.J. Roberts, M.D. The Charles Press Publishers,
  Philadelphia, PA, c1990. Excerpt from page 91.
In a statement to the FDA by Dr. James Bowen he said:

"Every known metabolite of aspartame is of marked or questionable
toxicity and patently unsafe for human use.  Methyl alcohol is
metabolized to nascent formaldehyde in the eye, nervous system and other
metabolically active organs.  It immediately attacks and denatures the
tissue structure proteins in which it is metabolized to nascent
formaldehyde.  This stimulates specific organ and subcellular
autoimmunity which seems to be a preponderant source of the bad experiences
reported by NutraSweet victims.  Aspartic acid is a neuroexcitotoxin
present in damaging amounts in its own right, at the ADI for aspartame.
Simple logic tells one that it will vastly increase the metabolism of
methyl alcohol to formaldehyde in the desinosomes of the periventricular
cells of the central nervous system, thus focusing the nascent
formaldehyde attack there.  This corresponds well with the
symptomatologies often experienced, such as Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS),
bulbar palsies, neurohormonal disorders, etc.  Also visual disturbances,
heart palpitations, infertility and fetal loss may be traced to aspartame
ingestion.  The diketopiperazine issue remains totally unresolved and
dangerous.  The amino acids that are released by hydrolysis, from eimers
and isomers that are either not sufficiently studied, or which are known
substrates in undesirable pathological states such as Alzheimer's
Merck Index: Tenth Edition: 5816: Methanol:  Methyl alcohol..wood alcohol...
"Poisoning may occur from ingestion, inhalation or percutaneous 
absorption.  Acute Effects:  Headache, fatigue, nausea, visual impairment 
or complete blindness (may be permanently), acidosis, 
convulsions..respiratory failure, death.  Death from ingestion of less 
than 30 ml. has been reported. .."

The Merck goes on: "Industrial solvent:  Raw material for making 
formaldehyde and methyl esters of organic and inorganic acids ..

This is what happens in your body.  Methanol converts to formaldehyde 
and  formic acid (ant sting poison) and causes metabolic acidosis.  

In the book FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY BY  Jean Bogert, eighth edition, on 
page 286 it says:

"Methyl Alcohol or "wood alcohol" taken internally is a dangerous 
poison.  It paralyzes the optic nerve and as little as 10 cc may cause 
blindness.  Its use as a solvent in industries causes a hazard for 
workmen unless forced ventilation is installed, since continual breathing 
of the vapors, may result in blindness.  A similar hazard exists when it 
is used as an antifreeze agent in automobile radiators, since it is 
vaporized by engine heat and the toxic vapor may be swept back into the car.
Methyl (wood) alcohol is sometimes present in improperly prepared 
distilled liquors and is added to ethyl alcohol to render it unfit for 
beverage purposes. ("denatured alcohol")."

There is so much blindness from aspartame that in October, l986 the 
Community Nutrition Institute in Washington, D.C. filed a petition with 
the FDA to have it banned because of its link to blindness.  (CHICAGO SUN 
TIMES, Friday, October 17, 1986   titled:  CONSUMER GROUP LINKS 
NUTRASWEET TO BLINDNESS)  The methanol converts to formaldehyde in the 

In the article in the Chicago Sun Times they quote Dr. H. J. Roberts who 
said: "Of 360 patients he has diagnosed as having aspartame-related 
problems, Roberts said, about one-fourth had decreased vision or 
blindness, nearly half had severe headaches and substantial numbers had 
epileptic seizures, confusion or memory loss, extreme depression and 
marked personality change."   Keep in mind this was in l986 when 
aspartame was in about 600 products - now the patent has expired and its 
in 5000 products and climbing!  

Here's more info about methanol from an article by Dr. Ron Austin of 
Norwalk, California in his newsletter BACK ISSUES TITLED: NutraSweet 
Friend or Foe!

"One man's (Nutra) Sweet is another man's poison! ...Methanol (methyl 
alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance, is added as a component 
during the manufacture of aspartame (NutraSweet).  This methanol is 
subsequently released within hours of consumption in the small 
intestine.  However, in humans this process is sped up tremendously if 
the methanol is ingested as a free methanol such as occurs in soft drinks 
after storage or in other foods after being heated.  Regardless as to 
whether this happens or not 10% of the weight of aspartame intake of an 
individual will be absorbed by the bloodstream as methanol within hours 
after consumption.  Important note:  Up until date there has been no 
therapeutic (healing) properties of this substance (methanol) and it has 
been considered to be a poison.  The ingestion of two (2) teaspoons is 
considered to be deadly in humans."

..."Methyl alcohol has a selective action on the optic nerve and can cause
blindness, the consumption of as little as 30 ml (two teaspoons) has
caused death.  Methyl alcohol is used as a polar solvent for plastics,
paints, and varnishes, as an antifreeze, and in the manufacture of
formaldehyde and other methyl compounds such as methyl amine, methyl
chloride, and methyl methacrylate.  Patients may complain of lethargy
(extreme tiredness), confusion, and impairment of speech, all signs of
nervous system involvement.  The individual may suffer leg cramps, back
pain, severe headache, abdominal pain, labored breathing, vertigo and
visual loss, the latter being a very important clue to making a diagnosis
of this type (methanol) poisoning.  In severe cases the liver, kidneys,
heart and lungs show dangerous signs of degeneration." 

These symptoms are what we are seeing in the population on a grand scale, 
the reason for the warning flyers we distribute worldwide.  People see 
the symptoms and realize what the culprit, and hopefully get off of it 
before it takes their life.  

of the signs and symptoms of intoxication due to methanol ingestion are 
not specific to methyl (wood) alcohol.  For example, headache, ear 
buzzing, dizziness, nausea and unsteady gait (intoxicated or drunk type 
of walking), gastrointestinal disturbances, weakness, vertigo, chills, 
memory lapses, numbness and shooting pains in the lower extremities, 
hands and forearms, behavioral disturbances and neuritis.  The most 
distinctive signs and symptoms of this type of poisoning in humans are 
the various visual disturbances such as:  misty vision, progressive 
contraction of the visual fields (tunnel vision) mist before the eyes, 
blurring of vision and indistinct vision."

And they are having a great deal of problems with methanol even in the 
plants.  Dr. Austin quotes one case:  "A 21 year old non-drinking male 
who had been exposed daily to the fine dust of aspartame (NutraSweet) at 
the packaging plant he had been working at for over one year, was 
complaining of blurred vision, headaches, dizziness, and depression 
before his sudden death.  An autopsy revealed liver, kidneys, heart and 
lungs degeneration (disease).  The damage to the heart was as if the man 
had been an alcoholic between the ages of 30 and 50 and up to 50% of his 
food intake for over a 10 to 15 year period was alcohol.  Mind you, he 
was a 21 year old non-drinker!!   But I only have one soft drink daily 
with NutraSweet, surly that can't kill me, right?  "

A good deal of Dr. Austin's newsletter is quoted from Dr. Woodrow Monte's
NUTRITION, VOLUME 36, NUMBER 1, 1984).  Dr. Monte said back then that the 
public use of this toxin might constitute the test of its safety!  It has 
- we have seen all the things he said would happen on a large scale 
worldwide.  He pleaded with Congress and the FDA to stop the insanity of 
marketing this poison.  His eloquent concluding remarks should never be

"I am sure you have been pressured by the petitioner's attorneys.  You 
must remember you are the American's public last defense; you must be 
strong to this mandate, for once you allow usage there is literally 
nothing I or my colleagues can do to reverse the course."

It fell on deaf ears, and the prophecy continues to be fulfilled as 
aspartame continues to insult the human constitution causing disease and 
death --  


   The International Society for the Enhancement of Eyesight, (founded 16
   Jan 1995) is a home page and a mailing list dedicated to promoting
   better natural eyesight for everyone! Simple, safe, and easy
   techniques have been known for at least a century that you can employ
   to prevent, lessen, and possibly completely eliminate blurry vision.
   These techniques of the "Art of Seeing" have been simply ignored by
   mainstream optometry and ophthalmology. It's time to change all that!
   You have nothing to lose but your glasses! Browse this page and
   subscribe to our mailing list!
Documents on the Enhancement of Eyesight

     * I SEE mailing list archive
     * Natural Vision FAQ (140K), maintained by Vic Cinc
     * Bates Method in a Nutshell
     * Eye Chart in RTF (Macintosh) or PostScript format
     * Finding Help
     * How to Eliminate Hyperopia by Dr. Merrill Allen -- if your child
       has a crossed or wandering eye, take this document to your eye
     * NutraSweet (aspartame) -- poison for the eye!
          + Aspartame and Blindness etc.
          + Aspartame and Dry Eye (and worse) -- a clinical report
     * Bibliographies
          + Vision Improvement Self-Help Books
          + Research on Myopia Control
          + Alternative Eye Science
          + The Incredible Changing Cornea
     * Scientific Reports
          + Bilberry for better vision
          + Schachar's theory of accomodation (courtesy of Erol Basturk)
          + Everard Home's lectures on human corneal accommodation
               o Proof of corneal accomodation through action of
                 extraocular muscles: anatomical and experimental
               o Demonstration of accommodation in various lensless eyes 
     * Dialogues on eyecare
          + How effective is surgery for cross-eye (strabismus,
            esotropia)? Will we ever get an answer from the
     * Figures in Unorthodox Eyecare
          + William Horatio Bates, MD
               o Obituary from New York Times
               o Biography from National Cyclopedia of American Biography
          + Article on Harry Sirota "Awareness Through Vision"
Related Pages

     * Other Net Health Crusades
          + Mark Gold's Holistic Health Resource Page. Get the low-down
            on all your favorite food additives/poisons.
          + Vaccine Information and Awareness. Learn the facts about
            vaccines: are they really safe and effective?
     * For the mainstream viewpoint -- other Net vision resources
          + American Academy of Ophthalmology
          + VisionNet
          + UC Berkeley School of Optometry
          + Indiana U Optometry
          + EyeCare Connection
          + Eye On-Line
          + Optical Help Wanted
          + Internet VisionCare
   This page is maintained by Alex Eulenberg, email:
   <aeulenbe at indiana.edu>. Last revision Nov 12, 1995.

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