[Two articles on nonlethal weapons. In the second one, note
that the excerpts from the Air Force study specifically mention
"psycho-correction" with embedded subliminal messages as well as
"neuro-implants." BTW, one of the strongest arguments against
"nonlethal" weapons, which is often not mentioned, is that they
lower the threshold for using violence. Similarly, having torture
devices available that leave little evidence of torture and whose
use is deniable may cause torture to be used where otherwise it
would not have been.]
Non-Lethal Weapons: Purposes and Types.
Author/s: V.S. Col. FROLOV
NLW are now used in various spheres of human activities connected
with neutralization and elimination of conflicts and crisis
situations. However, the US DoD Non-Lethal Weapons Program stresses
the development of principles of its combat employment primarily at
the tactical level. This does not preclude the use of non-lethal
weapons to achieve operational and strategic objectives (when
circumstances warrant it). It stands to reason that the DoD program
includes the tactical level. It is at this level that actual
engagements and battles occur.
Unlike conventional weapons, NLW are designed to temporarily
incapacitate (or immobilize) enemy personnel following which the
personnel should regain its normal psychological and physical
parameters. Note, however, that there is no requirement that their
effects on materiel (logistic support systems, infrastructure,
communications and command and control facilities, and so on) be
reversible. Among the priorities in the development of non-lethal
weapons under the auspices of the US DoD are studies of their
capabilities to cause temporary (lasting from a few minutes to
a few hours) passivity, disorientation loss of consciousness and
pain. Furthermore, in keeping with the principle of providing
"rheostatic capability," the US DoD is trying to develop weapons,
which allow it to select a "duration of effects."
The focus is on the development of non-lethals combining the two
fundamental effects: temporary incapacitation of enemy personnel and
"reversibility" in counter-personnel effects, or gradual regaining
of some of the lost (or sharply reduced) key psychological and physical
functions through human immunity reserves (without the administration
of pharmaceutical antidotes).
Foreign experts feel the interval between the extreme uses of combat
weapons should be filled by what might be called "intermediate" effect
of non-lethal weapons--prolonged incapacitation of enemy personnel.
R&D efforts toward this end involve the upgrading of blinding lasers
and other remote effect instruments and systems that can impact the
nervous system, perception and sharply reduce the functions of
We cannot fail to mention the social aspect of the use of non-lethal
weapons. According to Western experts, in a Western democracy, the
decision to employ military force in defense of national interests
should be made only after an exchange of views between the leaders of
major political parties and upon securing public support. As with all
weapons, the use of non-lethal weapons must be regulated by law,
possibly, at the transnational level and even within the framework of
the United Nations. Even so, it is possible that some types of NLW,
owing to the effects of their employment (despite being designed to
minimize serious injuries) can be rejected by some members of the
international community for religious or other reasons.
Furthermore, there may arise problems in connection with the accepted
in the West moral rules of conduct in war and international agreements
on the use of some or other weapons.
Despite this, there are rather sly attempts abroad to formally bypass
some of the above restrictions. One piece of evidence is the experiments
to create laser emitters to knock out only the optical units of sighting
systems, but these emitters can be easily converted for non-lethal weapons
to affect human visual analyzers. There are ongoing debates on which to
regard more humane: to physically destroy enemy personnel or to "slightly"
injure them and let them escape with their lives. Such debates, foreign
experts say, take the problems of creating new NLW types to a totally new,
philosophical plane: Can a democratic state generally afford to conduct a
war ("a quasi war") even with a minimal risk of fatalities?
When killing just won't do. (Catalogue).(excerpts from United States Air
Force Institute for National Security Studies report on nonlethal weapons)
From "Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References," a report published by the
United States Air Force Institute for National Security Studies.
According to the report's introduction, many of the weapons are still in
the proposal stage.
Acoustic Bullets: High-power, very low-frequency waves emitted from one-
to two-meter antenna dishes. Results in blunt-object trauma. Effects
range from discomfort to death.
Curdler Unit: A device that is plugged into a sound system to produce a
shrill, shrieking, blatting noise. It is used to irritate and disperse
rioters and has a decibel range just below that of the danger level to
the human ear. It is used in night operations to produce a "voodoo"
effect and breaks up chanting, singing, and clapping.
Infrasound: Very low-frequency sound that can travel long distances and
easily penetrate most buildings and vehicles. Long-wavelength sound
creates biophysical effects: nausea, loss of bowels, disorientation,
vomiting, internal-organ damage, or death may occur. By 1972 an infrasound
generator had been built in France. When activated it made the people in
range sick for hours.
Squawk Box: Crowd-dispersal weapon field-tested by the British Army in
Ireland in 1973. This directional device emits two ultrasonic frequencies
that when mixed in the human ear become intolerable. It produces giddiness,
nausea, or fainting. The beam is so small that it can be directed at
specific individuals in a riot situation.
ACOUSTIC & OPTICAL
Photic Driver: A crowd-control device that uses ultrasound and flashing
infrared lights to penetrate closed human eyelids. Potential for epileptic
fits because of the stroboscopic flashing effect.
Psycho-Correction: A technology invented by a Russian scientist that
involves influencing subjects visually or aurally with imbedded subliminal
Invisible: One concept envisions a fluorescent powder sprayed into crowds
from a pressurized container. Particles adhere to clothing and are visible
only under ultraviolet light. Another concept envisions sponge grenades
impregnated with infrared dye so that rioters can be later identified.
Tear Gas, Invisible: Invisible tear gas cannot be seen by rioters once it
emerges from a grenade or mechanical dispenser, and therefore has a greater
psychological panic-producing effect than tear smoke.
Police Jacket: Police jacket that jolts anyone who touches it.
Biodegrading Microbes: Microbes that turn storage tanks full of aviation
fuel into useless jelly. Such microbes may produce acids or enzymes that
can be tailored to degrade almost anything, even concrete and metal, so
their potential use as nonlethal weapons could be extensive.
Genetic Alteration: The act of changing genetic code to create a desired
less-than-lethal but long-term disablement effect, perhaps for generations,
thereby creating a societal burden.
Neuro-Implant: Computer implants into the brain that allow for behavioral
modification and control. Current research is experimental in nature and
focuses on lab animals such as mice.
Project Agile: Series of military-science studies in Asia conducted in
May 1966 for the Advanced Research Projects Agency. One such study centered
on developing "stink" bombs that were race specific.
Pheromones: The chemical substances released by animals to influence
physiology or behavior of other members of the same species. One use of
pheromones, at the most elemental level, could be to mark target individuals
and then release bees to attack them.
Prophet: The projection of the image of an ancient god over an enemy capital
whose public communications have been seized and used against it in a
massive psychological operation.
Soldier Forces: The projection of soldier images that make an opponent think
more allied forces exist than actually do, make an opponent believe that
allied forces are located in a region where none actually exist, and/or
provide false targets for his weapons to fire upon.
Death: Hologram used to scare a target individual to death. Example: a drug
lord with a weak heart sees the ghost of his dead rival appearing at his
bedside and dies of fright.
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