Neuron / neurotransmitter selection question

r norman rsnorman_ at _comcast.net
Tue Feb 25 15:20:55 EST 2003

On 25 Feb 2003 15:11:21 -0000, rblue at lccc.edu ("Ronald C. Blue")

>From: "Neo" <neo55592 at hotmail.com>
>To: <neur-sci at hgmp.mrc.ac.uk>
>Sent: Monday, February 24, 2003 11:23 PM
>Subject: Neuron / neurotransmitter selection question
>> My background is in computers and not in biology so my question may
>> seem off. I would like to know if a neuron can select which
>> neurotransmitter to release in synapses. Can a neuron select different
>> neurotransmitter for each action potential? How/why does a neuron
>> select different neurotransmitters?
>Usually it is just one but in some cases it can emit two different
>neurotransmitters at the same time.
>Why and how is currently in dispute.
>It may be related to informational overwrite on a gaussian reference
>frequency.  The informational overwrite would act as noise pushing the
>neurotransmitter out at the correct time and the reference frequency could
>be just on the edge preparation so that noise or information can be
>The information at some locations would reduce firing probabilities.  Nerve
>cells would function as if they were field effect transistors using gaussian
>principles.  The rule is that interference allows information that is
>different to be transmitted.
>Ron Blue
>http://turn.to.ai (USA Only)
>"The age of extremely superior conscious AI has begun."

It is fairly "common" for synapses to release more than one
transmitter.  That is, peptides and "small-molecule" transmitters
are often released together (cotransmission).  And multiple peptides
all processed from a single precursor protein can also be released

According to Levitan and Kaczmarek (The Neuron, 3rd Ed, Oxford,
2002, p. 250):
   There is now convincing histochemical evidence that some
    neurons contain one or more neuropeptides and a classical
    neurotransmitter, packaged in different vesicles but often present
    in the same synaptic terminal. ... In several cases it has been
    been found that only the classical transmitter is released by 
    low-frequency stimulation, and corelease of the peptide
    requires short bursts of high-frequency stimulation.  ... The
    coexistence of different neurotransmitters in distinct vesicle
    populations within a single neuron allows that neuron to
    produce different effects on a postsynaptic target, depending
    on the precise pattern of stimulation.

I have no clue as to what Ron Blue is trying to say, above,  about
"informational overwrite on a Gaussian reference frequency."  

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