"Majid Beshkar" <majid.beshkar from yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:mailman.232.1161916101.23274.neur-sci from net.bio.net...
> What is the lowest-order animal, in terms of phylogenetic hierarchy,
> endowed with associative learning (i.e., classical and operant
> conditioning)? In other words, where in phylogenetic hierarchy does the
> capability for associative learning arise?
> Thanks for your reply,
> Majid Beshkar
While you wait for a reply from a certified academic
(who may or might not have, deep down, a defective mind), be ready for that
it requires an animal with at least 2 neurons. ;-)