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The section below "Chapter 12" is from "THE COMMON SENSE MEDICAL
ADVISER" By R.V. Pierce, M.D. year 1895. 
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We had to type this out because of the damaged condition the antique
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file. We realize this isn't an authentic now because it is now a text
file.  Also it is not nearly as good as the other doctor books we have
on the CD-ROM that is like this about the plants. The cottage
Physician for example is excellent information from the 1800's that is
much better than this one. Combined with the other books on the CD-ROM
in the Acrobat file (PDF), this information works well, alone as it is
now, it is something from the sands of time.
The information contained is not presented with the intention of
diagnosing or prescribing.  Some of the information obviously can be
for use as in maintaining and promoting health. Please only with the
cooperation of a nutritionist and or physician. 
No responsibility will be assumed by the author,  publisher or
distributor's of this electronic or paper publication.  No guarantees
of any kind are made for the performance or effectiveness of the
preparations mentioned in this guide. 
Now that the legal stuff is out of the way, here goes-
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CHAPTER 12

TINCTURES

Very uniform and reliable tinctures may be made of most indigenous
plants, by procuring the part to be employed, at the proper season,
while it is green and fresh, brusing it well, and covering it with
good strong whiskey, or with alcohol diluted with one part of water to
three of alcohol, corking tightly, and letting it stand about fourteen
days, when the tincture may be filtered or poured off from the drugs,
and will be ready for use. Prepared from this imperfect manner, they
will be found to be much more reliable than any of the fluid extracts
found in the stores. An excess of the crude drug should be used in
preparing the tincture to insure a perfect saturation of the alcohol
with its active principles.

INFUSIONS

These are generally made by adding one-half ounce of the crude
medicine to a pint of water, which should be closely covered, kept
warm, and used as directed. Flowers, leaves, barks, and roots become
impared by age, and it is necessary to increase or diminish the dose
according to the strength of the article employed.

DECOCTIONS

The difference between a decection and an infusion is, that the plant
or substance is boiled in the production of the former, in order to
obtain its soluble, medicinal qualities. Cover the vessel containing
the ingredients, thus confining the vapor, and shutting out the
atmospheric air which sometimes impares the active principles and
their medicinal qualities. The ordinary mode of preparing a decoction
is to use one ounce of the plant, root, bark, flower, or substance to
a pint of water. The dose internally varies from a tablespoonful to
one ounce.

ALTERATIVES

Alteratives are a class of medicines which in some inexplicable
manner, gradually change certain morbid actions of the system, and
establish a healthy condition instead. They stimulate the vital
processes to renewed activity, and arouse the excretory organs to
remove matter which ought to be eliminated. They facilitate the action
of the secretory glands, tone them up, and give a new impulse to their
operations, so that they can more expeditiously rid the system of
worn-out and effete materials. In this way they alter, correct, and
purify the fluids, tone up the organs, and re-establish their healthy
functions. Alteratives may possess tonic, laxative, stimulant, or
diuretic properties all combined in one agent. Or we may combine
several alteratives, each having only one of these properties in one
remedy. We propose to enumerate only a few alteratives, and give the
doses which are usually prescribed; the list which we employ in our
practice is very extensive, but cannot be made available for domestic
use.

ALKALIES

These constitute an important list of remedial agents, their
administration being frequently indicated. The employement of other
medicines frequently should be preceded by the administration of an
agent of this class, to neutralize excessive acidity in the stomach
and bowels. Unless this be done, many medicines will fail to produce
their specific effects.

ANODYNES

Anodynes are those medicines which relieve pain by blunting the
sensibility of the nerves, or of the brain, so that it does not
appreciate the morbid sensation. An anodyne may be a stimulant in one
dose, and a narcotic in a larger one. The properties of different
anodyne agents vary, consequently they produce unlike effects. The
size of the dose required, differs according to circumstances and
condition. An adult, suffering acute pain, requires a much larger dose
to produce an anodyne effect than one who is a chronic sufferer, An
individual accustomed to the use of anodynes, requires a much larger
dose to procure relief than one who is not. Doses may be repeated,
until their characteristic effects are produced, after an interval of
thirty or forty minutes. When the stomach is very sensitive and will
not tolerate their internal administration, one-sixth of a grain of
Morphia can be inserted beneath the skin, by means of a hypodermic
syringe. Relief is more quickly experienced, and the anodyne effect is
much more lasting than when taken into the stomach.

ANTHELMINTICS

Anthelmintic means "against a worm, and is a term employed to
designate those medicines which destroy or expel worms. It means the
same as Vermifuge. Little is understood concerning the origin of
worms. There are five distinct varieties described by authors as being
more common than others. There is the long worm, the short, or pin
worm, the thread-worm, the tape worm, and the broad tape-worm peculiar
to some countries of Europe. Some medicines kill the worms, others
expell them alive. The remidies which sucessfully remove one kind of
worm have little effect upon another. The pin-worm inhabits the
rectum, and may be destroyed by injecting into it a strong solution of
salt, or decoction of aloes, and when it is allowed to pass away, the
rectum should be anointed with vaseline, butter or lard. Generally,
vermifuge remidies should be taken when the stomach is empty, and
should be followed by the administration of a cathartic in two hours
after the last dose is administered.

ANTIPERIODICS

It is well understood that malarial diseases are charactized by a
periodicity which indicates their nature. Antiperiodics prevent the
recurrence of the periodic manifistations, and hense their name.

ANTISPASMODICS

Antispasmodics are a class of remidies which relieve cramps,
convulsions, and spasms, and are closely allied to nervines. Indeed
some authors class them together.

ASTRINGENTS

Astringents are medicines which arrest discharges. When taken into the
mouth they produce the sensation known as puckering. They are used
internally and locally. The term styptic is used to designate those
astringents which arrest bleeding.

CARMINATIVES

Carminatives are medicines which allay intestional pain, arrest or
prevent griping by cathartics and exert a general soothing effect.
They are aromatic, and to a certain extent, stimulant.

CATHARTICS

Cathartics, or Purgatives are medicines which act upon the bowels and
increase the secretions and evacuations. In many parts of the country,
these agents are known as purges, or physics. They have been variously
divided and sub-divided, usually with reference to the energy of their
operations or the charactor of the evacuations produced.
Laxitives, or Aperients, are mild cathartics. Purgatives act with more
energy and produce several discharges which are of a more liquid
charactor and more copious than the former.
drastics are those cathartics which produce numerous evacuations
accompanied by more or less intestional irritation.
Hydragogues are those purgatives which produce copious, watery
discharges.
Cholagogues are those purgatives which act upon the liver, stimulating
its functions. Cathartics constitute a class of remidies which are
almost universally employed by families and physicians.

CAUSTICS

Caustics are substances which have the power of destroying or
disorganizing animal structures. By their action they destroy the
tissue to which they are applied, and form a crust, which is thrown
off by a seperation from the parts beneath. Their caustic property may
be destroyed by dilution with other substances, to such an extent that
they will only irritate or stimulate, and not destroy. Much care is
necessary in their employement, and it is not expected that the
unprofessional reader will have much to do with them; hense, we have
deemed it best not to give a list of these agents.

COUNTER-IRRITANTS

Counter-irritants are substances which produce irritation of the part
to which they are applied, varying in degree from a slight redness to
a blister or pustule. They are applied to the surface with a view of
producing an irritation to relieve irritation or inflammation in some
other or deeper seated part. They are a class of agents which we very
seldom employ.

DIAPHORETICS

Diaphoretics are medicines which increase perspiration. Those which
occasion profuse sweating are termed Sudorifics. The two terms
indicate different degrees of the same operation. They constitute an
important element in domestic practice, on account of the salutary
effects which generally follow their action. Their operation is
favored by warmth externally, and warm drinks, when they are not given
in hot infusion.

DILUENTS

Any fluid which thins the blood or holds medicine in solution is
called a diluent. Pure water is the principal agent of this class. It
constitutes about four-fifths of the weight of the blood, and is the
most abundent constituent of the bodily tissues. Water is necessary,
not only for digestion, nutrition, and all functional processes of
life, but it is indispensable as a menstruum for medicinal substances.
It is a necessary agent in depuration, or the process of purifying the
animal economy, for it dissolves and holds in solution deleterious
matter, which in this state may be expelled from the body. In fevers,
water is necessary to quench the thirst, promote absorption, and
incite the skin and kidneys to action. Its temperature may be varied
according to requirements. Diluents are the vehicles for introducing
medicine into the system. 

DIURETICS

Diuretics are medicines which, by their action on the kidneys,
increase the flow of urine.

EMETICS

These are medicines which cause vomiting and evacuation of the
stomach. Some of the agents of this class, termed irritant emetics,
produce vomiting by a local action on the stomach, and do not affect
this organ when introduced elsewhere. Others, which may be termed
systemic emetics, produce their effects through the nervous system,
and therefore, must be absorbed into the circulation before they can
produce vomiting. In cases of poisoning, it is desirable to empty the
stomach as quickly as possible, hense irritant emetics should be
employed, for they act more speedily. Draughts of warm water favor the
action of emetics.

EMMENAGOGUES

Emmenagogues is a term applied to a class of medicines which have the
power of favoring the discharge of the menses. 

EXPECTORANTS

Expectorants are medicines which modify the charactor of the
secretions of the bronical tubes, and promote their discharge. Most of
the agents of this class are depressing in their influence and thus
interfere with digestion and healthy nutrition. Their application is
very limited, hence we shall dismiss them without further
consideration.

LINIMENTS

Liniments are medicines designed for external application. The
benifits arising from their use depend upon their derivative power, as
well as upon the anodyne properties which many of them possess,
rendering them efficacious for soothing pain. 

NARCOTICS

A narcotic is a remedy which, in medicinal doses, allays morbid
sensibility, relieves pain, and produces sleep; but which, in
overdoses, produces coma, convulsions, and death. The quanity
necessary to produce these results varies in different individuals. 

NERVINES

These are medicines which act on the nervous system, soothing
excitement and quieting the condition known as "nervousness".

SEDATIVES

Sedatives are a class of agents which control excitation of the
circulation, and diminish irritability of the nervous system.
STIMULANTS

Stimulants are medicines which have the power of increasing the vital
activity of the body. Some have a very transient action, while others
are more permanent in effect.

TONICS

Tonics are remidies which moderately exalt the energies of all parts
of the body, without causing any deviation of healthy function. While
stimulents are transient in their influence, tonics are comparatively
permanent.


WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Apothecaries

20 grains          1 scruple
3 scruples          1 drachm
8 drs.              1 ounce
12 ozs.             1 pound

Avoirdupois

16 drams (drs.)           1 ounce, oz.
16 ozs.                          1 pound, lb.


ALTERATIVES

Mandrake (Podophyllum Peltatum), also called Mayapple, is a most
valuable alterative. The root is the part used. 
Dose - Of decoction, one or two teaspoonfuls; of tincture, six to
eight drops; of fluid extract, three to five drops; of its active
principle, Podophyllin, one twelfth to one eighth of a grain.

Poke (Phytolacca Decandra), also called skoke, Garget, or
pigeon-berry, is a valuable alterative. The root is the part used.
Dose - Of decoction, one to three teaspoonfuls; of fluid extract,
three to ten drops; of concentrated principle, Phytolaccin, one-fourth
to one grain.

Yellow Dock (Rumex Crispus). The part used is the root..
Dose - Of the infusion, one to three fluid ounces three times daily;
of fluid extract, ten to thirty drops; of tincture, twenty to forty
drops.

Tag Alder (Alnus Rubra) This is otherwise known as the smooth, common,
or swamp Alder. The bark is the part used. It is excellent in
scrofula, syphilis, cutaneous and all blood diseases.
Dose - Of decoction, one or two tablespoonfuls from three to five
times daily; of tincture, one or two teaspoonfuls; of fluid extract,
one-half to one teaspoonful; of concentrated principle, Alnuin,
one-half to one grain.

Black Cohosh (Macrotys or Cimicifuga Racemosa). The part used is the
root. Its other common names are Black Snake Root, or Squaw-root.
Black Cohosh is an alternative, stimulant, nervine, diaphoretic,
tonic, and a cerebro-spinal stimulant. It is a useful remidy.
Dose - Of decoction, one fourth to one ounce; of tincture, ten to
fifteen drops; of fluid extract, five to ten drops, of the
concentrated principle, Macrotin, one-eighth to one-half grain.

Blood Root (Sanguinaria Canadensis), is also known as Red Puccoon. The
part used is the root. In minute doses Blood-Root is a valuable
alterative, acting upon the biliary secretion and improving the
circulation and digestion.
Dose - Of powdered root, one-fourth to one-half grain; of tincture,
one to two drops; of fluid extract, one-half grain; of tincture, one
to two drops; of fluid extract, one-half to one drop. When given in
fluid form it should be well diluted.

Burdock (Arctium Lappa). The root is the part used. Burdock is a
valuable alternative in diseases of the blood.
Dose - Of tincture, from one teaspoonful to a tablespoonful twenty
minutes before meals; of fluid extract, one to two teaspoonfuls.

Blue Flag (Iris Versicolor). The part used is the root.
Dose - Of the tincture, five to ten drops; of fluid extract, three to
ten drops; of concentrated principle, Iridin, one-half to two grains.

Sweet Elder (Sambucus Canadensis). Sweet Elderflowers are a valuable
alterative, diretic, mucus and glandular stimulant, excellent in
eruptive, cutaneous, and scrofulous diseases of children. An infusion,
fluid extract, or syrup, will be found valuable for cleansing the
blood and stimulating the functions to a healthy condition.
Dose - Of the infusion of the flowers, from one-half to one ounce, if
freely taken, will operate as a laxitive; of fluid extract, one-fourth
to one-half teaspoonful. The flowers, or the inner bark of the root,
simmered in fresh butter, make a good ointment for most cutaneous
affections.


ANODYNES

Opium (Papaver Somniferum). Opium is a stimulant, anodyne, or
narcotic, according to the size of the dose administered.
Dose - Of the dry powder, one-fourth to one grain; of tincture
(Laudanum), five to fifteen drops; of camphorated tincture
(Paregoric), one-half to one teaspoonful; of Morphine, one-eighth to
one-fourth grain; of Dover's Powder, three to five grains.

Poison Hemlock (Conium Maculatum). The leaves are the parts used.
Poison Parsley, as it is sometimes called is an anodyne, narcotic, and
an excellent alterative.
Dose - Of fluid extract, two to six drops; of solid extract,
one-fourth to one-half grain.

Hyoscyamus (Hyoscyamus Niger), commonly known as Henbane. The herb is
used. It is a powerful narcotic, and unlike Opium, does not constipate
the bowels, but possesses a laxitive tendency. Therefore, it may be
employed as an anodyne for allaying pain, calming the mind, inducing
sleep and arresting spasms, when opiates are inadmissable.
Dose - Of alcoholic extract, one-half to two grains; of Hyoscyamin,
one-twelfth to one-fourth of a grain.

Belladonna (Atropa Belladonna) or Deadly Nightshade. The herb or
leaves are a valuable agent. In overdoses, it is an energetic,
narcotic poison. In medicinal doses it is anodyne, antispasmodic,
diaphoretic, and diuretic. It is excellent in neuralgia, epilepsy,
mania, amaurosis, whooping-cough, stricture, rigidity of the os uteri,
and is supposed by some to be a prophylactic or preventive of Scarlet
Fever. Its influence upon the nerve centers is remarkable. It relaxes
the blood-vessels on the surface of the body and induces capillary
congestion, redness of the eye,scarlet appearance of the face, tongue,
and body.
Dose - Of fluid extract, one-half to one drop; of tincture, one to two
drops; of concentrated principle, Atropin, one-thirtieth to
one-sixteenth of a grain; of the Akaloid, Atropia, one-sixtieth of a
grain. Even the most skillful chemists are very cautious in
compounding these latter active principles, and the danger of an
overdose is great.

Hops (Humulus Lupulus). This is an excellent remedy in wakefulness. A
bag of leaves, moistened with whiskey and placed as a pillow under the
head, acts as an anodyne.
Dose - Of the infusion of the leaves, from one to four ounces; of the
fluid extract, one-fourth to three-fourths of a teaspoonful; of the
concentrated principle, Humulin, one to three grains.


ANTHELMINTICS

Male Fern (Aspidium Filix Mas). Male Fern is the anthelmintic which is
considered especially effectual in removing the tape-worm.
Dose - Of the powder, one to two drachms, given morning and evening in
syrup, followed by a brisk cathartic. The dose of the tincture of the
buds in is from eight to thirty drops.

Assafetida (Assafetida Ferula). This is a powerful antispasmodic. It
is employed in hysteria, hypochondria, convulsions, and spasms, when
unaccompanied by inflammation.

Yellow Jessamine (Gelseminum Sempervirens). The root is the part used.
This is a valuable remedy in a determination of the blood to the
brain; also in neuralgia.

Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis). The root is the part used. Valerian
is an effective remedy in cases of nervousness and restlessness.
Dose - Of the tincture, one-half to two tablespoonfuls; of the
ammoniated tincture of valerian, from one-half to two teaspoonfuls in
sweetened water or milk.
Yellow Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium Pubescens). The root is the part
used. This is a useful remedy in hysteria, chorea, and all cases of
irritability.

High Cranberry (Viburnum Opulus). The bark is the part used. It is
also known as Cramp Bark. This is a powerful antispasmodic, and is
effective in relaxing spasms of all kinds.


ASTRINGENTS

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis Virginica). The parts used are the leaves and
bark. This is the most valuable astringent and exerts a specific
action upon the nervous system. It arrests many forms of uterine
hemmorrhage with great promptness, is a valuable agent in the
treatment of piles, and is useful in many forms of chronic throat and
bronchial affections.

Blackberry Root (Rubus Villosus). This astringent is a favorite
domestic remedy in affections of the bowels.
Dose - Of the infusion (bruised root), one-half to one ounce,
sweetened.

Cranesbill (Geranium Maculatum). The root is used. This plant is also
known as Crow-foot, and Spotted Geranium. It is a pleasant, but
powerful astringent.
Dose - Of the fluid extract, ten to thirty drops; of the concentrated
principle, Geranin, one to two grains.

Hardhack (Spirea Tomentosa). Spirea, or Meadow Sweet. The stem and
leaves are used. This is a tonic and an astringent, and is used in
diarrhea and cholera-infantum.
Dose - Of the infusion, one half to one ounce; of the fluid extract,
three to six drops.

Bugle Weed (Lycopus Virginicus). This is variously known as
Water-hoarhound and Water-bugle. It is sedative and tonic, as well as
astringent, and is employed in hemorrhages and in incipient phthisis.
Dose - Of the infusion, one to two ounces; of the fluid extract,
fifteen to twenty-five drops; of the concentrated principle, Lycopin,
one-half to one grain.

Catechu (Acacia Catechu). A tincture of this plant is a pure, powerful
astringent, and is especially useful in cronic diarrhea, chronic
catarrh, and cronic dysentery.
Dose - Of the powder, five to twenty grains; of the tincture, one-half
to two teaspoonfuls.

Canada Fleabane (Erigeron Canadense). The leaves and flowers are used.
This plant, sometimes known as Colt's Tail, Pride Weed, or Bitter
Weed, is astringent, and has been efficiently employed in uterine
hemorrhages.
Dose - Of the infusion (two ounces of the herb to one pint of water),
one to two ounces; od the oil, five to ten drops on sugar, repeated at
intervals of from one to four hours.


CARMINATIVES

Anise Seed (Pimpinella Anisum). Anise is a pleasant, aromatic
carminative, and is used in flatulent colic.
Dose - Of the powdered seed, ten to fifteen grains; of the infusion (a
teaspoonful of seed to a gill of water), sweetened, may be given
freely; of the oil, five to ten drops on sugar.

Fennel Seed (Anethum Foeniculum). This is one of our most grateful
aromatics, and is sometimes employed to modify the action of senna and
rhubarb.
Dose - Same as that of anise-seed.

Ginger (Zingiber Officinale). The root is the part used. This is a
grateful stimulant and carminative.
Dose - Of the powder, ten to twenty grains; of the infusion, one
teaspoonful in a gill of water; of the tincture, twenty to thirty
drops; of the essence, ten to fifteen drops; of the syrup, one
teaspoonful.

Wintergreen (Gaultheria Procumbens). The leaves are used. This plant
possesses stimulant, aromatic, and astringent properties. The essence
of Wintergreen is carminative, and is used in colics.
Dose - Of the essence, one-half to one teaspoonful in sweetened water;
of the oil, three to five drops on sugar.

Peppermint (Mentha Piperita). Peppermint is a powerful stimulant,
carminative, and antispasmodic. It is used in the treatment of spasms,
colic, and hysteria.
Dose - The infusion may be used freely. The essence may be taken in
doses of fifteen to thirty drops in sweetened warm water; of the oil,
one to five drops on sugar.

Spearmint (Mentha Viridis). The carminative properties of spearmint
are inferior to those of peppermint, and its chief employement is for
its diuretic and febrifuge virtues.
Dose - Same as that of peppermint.


CATHARTICS

Jalap (Ipomoea Jalapa). The root is used. It is a drastic and a
hydragogue cathartic. Formerly it was combined with equal parts of
calomel. From this fact it, recieved the name of "ten and ten."
Dose - Of the powder, five to twenty grains; of the fluid extract, ten
to fifteen drops; of the solid extract, two to four grains; of the
concentrated principle, Jalapin, one-half to two grains.

Gamboge (Gambogia). The gum is used. Gamboge is a powerful drastic,
hydragogue cathartic, which is apt to produce nausea and vomiting. It
is employed in dropsy. It should never be given alone, but combined
with milder cathartics. It accelerates ther action while they moderate
its violence.
Dose - Of the powder, one-half to two grains. This substance combined
with aloes and sometimes with scammony, constitutes the basis of the
numerous varieties of large, cathartic pills found in the market.

Culver's Root (Leptandra Virginica). The root is used. This plant,
known under the various names of Culver's Physic, Black-root, Tall
Speedwell, and Indian Physic, is a certain cholagogue, laxitive, and
cathartic.
Dose - Of decoction, one to two fluid ounces; of fluid extract, ten to
twenty drops; of tincture, twenty to thirty drops; of the
concentrated, active principle, Leptandrin, which is but feebly
cathartic, as a lazative, two to five grains.

Rhubarb (Rheum Palmatum). This is much used as a domestic remedy, and
by the profession, for its laxitive, tonic, and astringent effects. It
is employed in bowel complaints.
Dose - Od the powder, ten to thirty grains; of the tincture, one-half
to two teaspoonfuls; of the fluid extract, ten to thirty drops; of the
solid extract, three to five grains; of the syrup, and aromatic syrup,
an excellent remedy for children, one-half to one teaspoonful.
(Note; the leaves are poisonous)

Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus Purshiana). Is a very efficient remedy in
chronic constipation.
Dose - Of the fluid extract, from ten to twenty drops taken in a
tablespoonful of water. The unpleasant taste may be disguised with the
extract of liquorice.

Butternut (Juglans Cinerea). The bark is the part used. Butternut is a
mild cathartic, which resembles rhubarb in its property of evacuating
the bowels without irritating the alimentary canal.
Dose - Of the extract, as a cathartic, five to ten grains; of the
fluid extract, one-half to one teaspoonful; of the concentrated
principle, Juglandin, one to three grains. As a laxitive, one-half of
these quantities is sufficient.

Aloes (Aloe). The gum is used. The cathartic acts upon the lower part
of the bowels and sometimes causes piles; though some late authors
claim that in small doses it is a valuable remedy for piles.
Dose - In powder or pill, three to ten grains; as a laxitive, one to
three grains.


COUNTER IRRITANTS

Mustard (Sinapis). The flour of mustard, which is best adapted for
domestic use, is employed in the form of a paste spread on cloth. It
takes effect in a few moments; the length of time it remains in
contact with the skin and the strength of the mustard determine the
effect produced.

Horse Radish - (Cochlearia Armoracia). The leaves are the parts used.
Let them wilt and bind them on the part affected. They act nearly as
energetically as mustard.


DIAPHORETICS

Pleurisy Root (Asclepias Tuberosa). Is known as White-root, and
Butterfly-weed. It is a valuable remedy, well adapted to break up
inflammations and diseases of the chest.
Dose - Of infusion, one to two ounces; of fluid extract, one-fourth to
one-half teaspoonful; of the concentrated principle, Asclepin, one to
three grains.

Saffron (Crocus Sativus). Golden Saffron.
Dose - Of infusion (one drachm to a pint of water), one two ounces.

Sage (Salvia Officinalis). The warm infusion drunk freely is a
valuable, domestic diaphoretic.

Virginia Snakeroot (Aristolochia Serpentaria), is an efficient agent.
Dose - Of infusion, one to two ounces; of tincture, one-fourth to one
teaspoonful; of fluid extract, one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful.

Jaborandi (Pilocarpus Pinnatus). Jaborandi increases the flow of
saliva, causes profuse perspiration, and lowers the temperature of the
body. In doses of from twenty to sixty drops of the fluid extract,
administered in a cup of warm water or herb tea on going to bed, we
have found it very effectual for breaking up recent colds. We have
also found it valuable in whooping-cough, in doses of from three to
ten drops, according to the age of the child, given three or four
times a day. The fluid extract may be obtained at almost any
drug-store.

May Weed (Maruta Cotula), is also known as wild Chamomile, and Dog
Fennel. It is not much used, though it is a powerful diaphoretic.
Dose - Of infusion, one to two ounces.

Catnip (Nepeta Cataria). A deservedly popular, domestic remedy, always
acceptable, and certain in its action. The warm infusion is the best
form for its administration. It may be drunk freely.

Ginger (Zingiber Officinale). The hot infusion may be sweetened and
drunk as freely as the stomach will bear.


DIURETICS



Marsh Mallow (Althea Officinalis), is used in irritable conditions of
the urinary organs. The infusion may be drunk freely.

Gravel Plant ( Epigea Repens), is also known as Waterpink,
Trailing-Arbutus, or Gravel-Root.
Dose - Of decoction of the plant, one to three ounces; of fluid
extract, one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful.

Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis),  is also known as Knot Root,
Horse Balm, Rich Weed, or Ox Balm. This is a mild diuretic, slow in
action, yet effective in allaying irritation of the bladder. The root
is the part used.
Dose - Od infusion, one to two ounces; of fluid extract, five to ten
drops; of the concentrated principle, Collinsonin, one-half to one
grain.

Foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea) slows the action of the heart, lowers
the temperature, and acts indirectly as a diuretic. It is especially
valuable in the treatment of scarlet fever and in dropsy.
Dose - Of infusion, one half drachm to one-half ounce; of the fluid
extract or strong tincture, from two to ten drops. It should be used
with caution. A poultice made of the leaves and placed over the
kidneys is an effectual method of employing the drug.

Queen of the Meadow ( Eupatorium Purpureum), is also known as Gravel
Weed, Gravel Root, or Trumpet Weed. This is a most valuable diuretic.
Dose - Of the infusion, one to three ounces; of fluid extract,
one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful; of the concentrated principle,
Eupatorin (Purpu), one-half to two grains.

Buchu (Barosma Crenata). The leaves are used. This agent has been
extensively employed, generally in compounds.
Dose - Of infusion, (steeped for two hours or more,) one to two
ounces; of fluid exteact, the same; of the concentrated principle,
Barosmin, one to three grains.

Pipsissewa ( Chimaphila Umbellata), or Prince's Pine. This is a tonic
to the kidneys, as well as a diuretic and alterative, and is a mild,
but very efficient remedy.
Dose - Of decocton, one ounce from four to six times a day; of fluid
extract, one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful; of the concentrated
principle, Chimaphilin, one to two grains.

Watermelon Seeds (Cucurbita Citrullus). Dose - Of infusion, the
patient may drink freely until the desired effect is secured.

Pumpkin Seeds (Cucurbita Pepo). They are mild, unirritating, yet
effective diuretics. an infusion of these may be drank freely.


EMETICS

Mustard (Sinapis) acts promptly and efficiently as an emetic, and may
be employed in poisoning.
Dose - From one to two teaspoons of powdered mustard, stirred up in a
glass of tepid water. It should be quickly swallowed and diluents
freely administered.

Lobelia (Lobelia Inflata), sometimes known as Indian Tobacco, or
Emetic Weed. The herb and seeds are used. This is a powerful, systemic
emetic but very depressing.
Dose - Of the powdered leaves, fifteen to twenty grains; of the
infusion, one to three ounces; of the fluid extract, ten to fifteen
frops.

Boneset (Eupatorium Perfoliatum). Dose - Of the warm infusion or
decoction, two to three ounces; of the fluid extract, one teaspoonful
in hot water; of the concentrated principle, Eupatorin, two to five
grains.

EMMENAGOGUES

Pennyroyal (Hedeoma Pulegioides). Pennyroyal, used freely in the form
of a warm infusion, promotes perspiration and excites the menstrual
discharge when recently checked. A large draught of the infusion
should be taken at bed-time. The feet should be bathed in warm water
previous to taking the infusion.

Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa). Black Cohosh, known also as Black
Snake Root, is an effective remedy in uterine difficulties.
Dose - Of the tincture, twenty drops; of the fluid extract, ten drops.

Tansy (Tanacetum Vulgare). Tansy is beneficial in suppressed
menstruation.
Dose - Of the infusion, from one to four fluid ounces.

Life Root (Senecio Gracilis). Life Root exerts a peculiar influence
upon the female reproductive organs, and used with connamon and
raspberry leaves stops flooding. It is very efficacious in promoting
the menstrual flow, and is a valuable agent in the treatment of
uterine diseases.
Dose - Of the decoction, four fluid ounces three or four times a day;
of the fluid extract, from one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful.

Motherwort (Leonurus Cardiaca). Motherwort is usually given in warm
infusion, in suppression of the menses from cold.
Dose - Of the decoction, from two to three fluid ounces every one or
two hours.

NARCOTICS

Henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger). The leaves and seeds are used. Henbane, in
large doses, is a powerful narcotic and dangerously poisonous. In
medicinal doses, it is anodyne and antispasmodic; it allays pain,
induces sleep, and arrests spasms.
Dose - Of the fluid extract, five to ten drops; of the solid extract,
from one-half to one grain; of the concentrated principle, Hyoscyamin,
from one-twelfth to one-fourth of a grain.

Indian Hemp (Cannabis Indica) An east Indian plant.
Dose - Of the extract, from one-fourth to one-half grain; of the
tincture, from three to eight drops; of the fluid extract, from two to
five drops. The plant known as Indian Hemp, growing in this country,
possesses very different qualities.

Stramonium (Datura Stramonium). Stramonium, also known as Thorn Apple,
in large doses is a powerful narcotic poison. In medicinal doses it
acts as an anodyne and antispasmodic.
Dose - Of extract of the leaves, from one-half to ine grain; of the
fluid extract, from three to six drops.

NERVINES

Hops (Humulus Lupulus). Dose - Of infusion, one to three ounces; of
the fluid extract, one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful of the
concentrated principle, Humulin, two to three grains.

Skull Cap (Scutellaria Lateriolia). The herb is used. It is also known
as Mad Dog Weed. This is a valuable remedy.
Dose - Of infusion, one to two ounces; of the fluid extract, trn to
twenty drops; of the concentrated principle, Scutellarin, one to two
grains.

Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium Pubescens). The root is used.
Dose - Of the infusion, one-half to one-ounce; of the fluid extract,
one-fourht to one-half teaspoonful; of the concentrated principle,
Cypripedin, one to two grains.

SEDATIVES

Aconite (Aconitum Napellus). The parts used are the root and leaves.
Aconite slows the pulse, diminishes arterial tension, and lowers the
temperature of the body in fevers. It is an effectual remedy in acute
inflamation of the tonsils and throat, in acute bronchitis, in
inflamation of the lungs, and pleurisy, in the hot stage of
intermittent and remittent fevers, in the eruptive fevers, in fever
arising from a cold, and in some forms of neuralgia. Acute suppression
of the menses from a cold, may be relieved by the tincture of aconite
in drop doses every hour.
Dose - Of the tincture of the root, from one-half od a drop to two
drops, in a spoonful of water. In acute fevers and inflamations, from
one-half drop to one drop should be administered every half hour or
hour, according to the severity of the symptoms.

Peach Tree (Amygdalus Persica). Peach tree leaves and bark are
slightly sedative, but the chief use which we have found for these
articles is to control nausea and vomiting arising from irritability
of the stomach. It also possesses mild, tonic properties.
Dose - Of infusion of the bark of the small twigs or of the leaves,
from two to six teaspoonfuls.

American Hellebore (Veratrum Viride) is also known as White Hellebore,
Indian Poke, or Swamp Hellebore. The root is the part used. It is a
most valuable agent with which to control the frequent, strong,
bounding pulse common to many febrile and inflammatory diseases. When
the pulse is hard, incompressible, and bounding, this remedy is more
effectual than aconite.
Dose - Of the tincture and fluid extract, from one to two drops,
repeated every half hour to two hours, according to the severity of
the symptoms. This remedy should be given in very small doses,
frequently repeated, if we would secure its best effects. Our favorite
mode of administering both veratrum and aconite is to add ten drops of
the tincture to ten or fifteen teaspoonfuls of water, of which one
teaspoonful may be administered every hour.

Yellow Jessamine (Gelseminum Sempervirens). The root is the part used.
Through its controlling effect over the sympathetic nervous system,
this agent exerts a marked influence in controlling morbid
excitability of the circulatory organs. It allays irritation, and
determination of blood to the brain, indicated by flushed face,
contracted pupils, irritability, and restlessness, a frequent
condition in diseases incident to childhood. Its concentrated
principle, Gelsemin, is an efficient remedy in bloody-flux dysentery.
It should be administered in very small doses to secure the best
results. Only one-sixteenth to one-eighth of a grain is required,
repeated every two hours. It should be triturated with sugar of milk
or with common white sugar, in the proportion of one grain to ten of
sugar.
Dose - Of tincture, from five to fifteen drops; of fluid extract,
three to six drops; of Gelsemin, as a sedative, one-fourth to one-half
grain.


STIMULANTS

Cayenne Pepper (Capsicum Annuum). Cayenne Pepper is a powerful
stimulant. 
Dose - Of the powder, from one to six grains, administered in milk; of
the tincture, from five to ten drops, largely diluted in milk or
water.

Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum). Black pepper is a warm, carminative
stimulant. 
Dose - From five to fifteen grains; of the fluid extract, from ten to
fifteen drops.

Prickley Ash (Xanthoxylum Fraxineum). Prickely Ash Bark is a stimulant
and tonic. The parts used are the bark and leaves.
Dose - Of the fluid extract, from five to fifteen drops; of the
tincture, ten to twenty drops; of the active principle, Xanthoxylin,
one to two grains.

TONICS

White Poplar (Liriodendron Tulipifera),  also called American Poplar,
or White Wood. The part used is the inner bark. This is a mild but
valuable tonic.
Dose - Of the infusion, from one-half to one ounce; of the tincture,
from one to two teaspoonfuls.

Chamomile (Anthemis Nobilis). The part used is the flowers. This is a
mild, unirritating tonic.
Dose - Of the infusion (one-fourth ounce of flowers to a pint of
water), one-half to one ounce.

Gentian (Gentiana Lutea). The root is the part used. This is a
favorite domestic tonic in many localities.
Dose - Of powdered root, five to ten grains; of the tincture, ten to
twenty drops; of the fluid extract, five to ten drops, four to five
times a day.

Willow (Salix Alba). Willow is a tonic and an astringent.
Dose - Of the decoction, from one to two fluid ounces; of the
concentrated principle, Salicin, two to four grains.

Gold Thread (Coptis Trifolia). Gold Thread is a pure and powerful,
bitter tonic, and is also efficacious as a wash for sore mouth or as a
gargle.
Dose - Of the tincture, from ten to twenty drops; of the fluid
extract, from five to ten drops.

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